# B.Sc in Applied Physics

Bharathidasan University
In Tiruchirappalli

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## Important information

 Typology Bachelor Start Tiruchirappalli
• Bachelor
• Tiruchirappalli
Description

Venues

Where and when

Starts Location
On request
Tiruchirappalli
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 Starts On request Location TiruchirappalliBharathidasan University.Palkalaiperur, Tamil Nadu, India See map

## Course programme

4
CC - I : BASIC CONCEPTS OF INSTRUMENTATION
UNIT - I: BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MEASUREMENT
Aims of measurement - Classification of measurement Characteristics of
measuring instruments, Primary sensing elements, Conversion elements,
indicating and storing elements - Conversion elements, Indication and
storing elements - Factors in the selection of measuring instruments -
Static measurements - Scale and pointer type indicating instruments - The
basic elements in measurements - Calibration procedure - Temperature
problems - Intrinsic safety - Electrical noise and its elimination
UNIT - II: STANDARDS OF MEASUREMENTS AND THEORY OF
ERRORS
Primary standards - Derived standards and units Standard samples -
Radiation standard - Basic electrical standards - Derived electrical
standards.
Errors - known errors - Gross error - Systematic error - Instrumental
error - Environmental errors - Observational error - Random error -
standard deviation - Variance - Gaussian curve of errors
UNIT - III : STATIC CHARACTERISTICS
Static calibration , accuracy, precision and bias - Combination of
component errors in overall system - Accuracy calibration - Static
sensitivity - Linearity - Threshold, resolution, hysteresis and dead space,
scale reliability, span and static
Stiffness - Input Impedance, Impedance matching
UNIT - IV: DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Dynamic characteristics - Dynamic response of first order and second order
type instruments - Dynamic accuracy - Response to a step function of
function of displacement - Response to a constant velocity - response to a
constant acceleration - Response to a sinusoidal input
5
UNIT - V: TRANSDUCERS
Analog transducers, Resistance, Inductive and Capacitative Transducers-
Strain gauges - Opto electronic transducers - Digital transducers

CC - III - FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONICS AND DEVICES
UNIT - I : ELECTRON EMISSION AND DYNAMICS
Motion of a charged particle in an electric field - Motion in a magnetic
field- Motion under the influence of both types of fields - fields -
Electrostatic and electromagnetic deflections in a CRT - Basic principles of
electrostatic and magnetic lenses
UNIT - II: SEMI CONDUCTOR DEVIES (DIODES)
Band theory of solids - Classification of solids on the basis of theory -
Intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductors - PN junction characteristics -
Applications of continuity equation for the study of junction behaviour -
Avalanche and zener breakdown of PN junction diodes and tunnel diodes
UNIT - III: SEMI CONDUCTOR DEVIES (TRANSISTORS)
PNP and NPN transistors - Current flow - Characteristics - Transistors -
parameters - Small signal equivalent circuits - Hybrid model -
Determination and measurement of hybrid parameters - photo transistor -
FET - Characteristics and theory of operation of JFETs, MOSFETs and
VMOS
UNIT - IV: RECTIFIERS
Half wave and full wave rectifier circuits - Performance characteristics of
rectifier circuits - Filter considerations - Capacitor, Inductor, L section &
RC section filter
UNIT - V: REGULATED POWER SUPPLY
Shunt and series type regulators and their comparison - Feed back type
series regulators - Analysis and design - Protection circuits for voltage
regulators - Switching mode voltage regulators

CC - IV - ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS
UNIT - I: AMPLIFIERS - I
Small signal amplifiers - Graphical analysis and load line concepts - Selection
of operating point and biasing - RC coupled amplifier - Feed back amplifier - The feed
back concept - Gain with feedback - General characteristics of negative feedback
amplifiers - Bias types of feed back and their effect of gain - Multistage feed back
amplifiers
UNIT - II: AMPLIFIERS II
Power amplifier - power BJT - Thermal resistance - Maximum power
hyperbola - Thermal runaway - Class A, Class B, Class AB and Class C amplifiers -
Basic operational amplifier- Differential amplifier
UNIT - III : OSCILLATORS
Basic principles of oscillators - Multivibrators - Function generators -
Sinusoidal, Square, Rectangular, Triangular , Ramp and Pulse wave forms generation -
Hartley, colpitt and crystal oscillators - Derivation for frequency of oscillations -
Applications of sine and square wave oscillators - Multivibrators using transistor / IC
operational amplifier - The wave forms at the base and the collector Expression for the
periods of oscillations - Miller and Boot Strap time base generators - Blocking
oscillators - Schmitt trigger circuits and their use
UNIT - IV : HIGH FREQUENCY DEVICES
Electromagnetic theory - Field vectors - Micro wave generators - Klystron and
8
Magnetron oscillators - Principles of RADAR
UNIT - V: INTEGRATED CIRCUITS
Monolithic integrated circuit technology - The planar processes- Bipolar
transistor fabrication - Fabrication of FETs - CMOS technology - Monolithic diodes-
The Op-Amp - Op-Amp parameters - Comparator - Inverting , non inverting, summing
and subtracting amplifiers - Integrator - Differentiator

CC - V - MAJOR PRACTICAL - II:
1. Single stage transistor amplifier - RC coupled
2. Feedback amplifier - Transistor
3. FET amplifier
4. Power amplifier- Transistor
5. Two Stage amplifier using transistors
6. Tuned collector oscillator
7. Hartley oscillator- Transistor
8. Colpitt's oscillator-Transistor
9. Astable multivibrator using transistors
10. Astable multivibrator using Op-Amp.
11. Monstable multivibrator using transistors
12. Phase shift oscillator
13. Characteristics of Op-Amp
14. Summing and Difference Op-Amp
15. Integrator and differentiator using Op-Amp.
16. Schmitt trigger using transistor
17. Schmitt trigger using Op-Amp
18. Astable multivibrator using 555 times
******
9
NON MAJOR ELECTIVE I - ENERGY PHYSICS
Unit I: Conventional Energy Sources
World's reserve - commercial energy sources and their availability - various forms of
energy - renewable and conventional energy system - comparison - Coal, oil and natural
gas - applications - Merits and Demerits
Unit II: Solar Energy
Renewable energy sources - solar energy - nature and solar radiation - components -
solar heaters - crop dryers - solar cookers - water desalination (block diagram)
Photovoltaic generation - merits and demerits
Unit III: Biomass energy fundamentals:
Biomass energy - classification - photosynthesis - Biomass conversion process
Unit IV: Biomass Utilization
Gobar gas plants - wood gasification - advantages & disadvantages of biomass as
energy source
Unit V: Other forms of energy sources
Geothermal energy - wind energy - Ocean thermal energy conversion - energy from
waves and tides (basic ideas)

CC - VI : INSTRUMENTATION ANALYSIS
UNIT - I: VISIBLE, UV AND IR SPECTROSCOPY
Electromagnetic spectrum - Spectroscopic principles instruments - Fundamentals-
Visible, UV and IR radiation sources Monochromators - Filters - Prism- Grating types
- Detectors - various types of instrument s - Applications in industry
UNIT - II: X- RAYS AND LASER
X-ray production - Instruments - Medical equipment Laser principle -
Different types - Applications - Fibre optics and its applications
UNIT - III: RAMAN AND NMR SPECTROSCOPY
Principles of NMR - Description of NMR spectrometer - Types - Applications -
Raman spectra - Applications
UNIT - IV: GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY AND MASS SPECTROMETERY
Gas chromatographic principle - Description of the instruments - Applications
Mass spectrometer principle - Description of the instrument - Magnetic
deflection and time of flight methods - Electrophoresis - Principle - Instruments -
Applications
UNIT - V: ANALYZING INSTRUMENTS
Saccharimeter - pH meters - Conductivity cell - Oxygen analyzer - Polarimeter

Non Major Elective II - LASER
PHYSICS
Unit I: Fundamentals of LASER
Spontaneous emission - stimulated emission - meta stable state - Population inversion -
pumping - Laser Characteristics
Unit II: Production of LASER
11
Helium - Neon Laser - Ruby Laser - CO2 Laser - Semiconductor Laser
Unit III: Industrial Applications of LASER
Laser cutting - welding - drilling - Hologram - Recording and reconstruction of
hologram
Unit IV: Lasers in Medicine:
Lasers in Surgery - Lasers in ophthalmology - Lasers in cancertreatment
Unit V: Lasers in Communication
Optic fibre communication- Total internal reflection - Block diagram of fibre optic
communication system - Advantages of fibre optic communication

CC - VII : INDUSTRIAL INSTRUMENTATION
UNIT - I: MEASUREMENTS OF MOTION
Motion measurements - Relative motion measuring devices - Absolute motion
measuring devices.
UNIT - II : PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS
Force and torque measurements - Pressure measurements - Moderate, high and
low pressure measurements - Calibration.
UNIT - III: TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS
Measurements of temperature - Non electrical methods - Electrical methods -
Pyrometry
12
UNIT - IV: ACOUSTIC MEASUREMENTS
Acoustic measurements - Sound measuring system - Phon-Acoustic filters -
Equalizers - Types - Microphones.
UNIT - V: MEASUREMENT OF FLOW
Mechanical flow meters - Displacement type - Reciprocating piston type -
Nutating disc - Oscillating piston - Helix and gear meters - Inferential type -
Propeller types - Propeller types with electronic counter combination meters -
Calibration set up.
Differential type - Orifice plate - Venturi type - dall tube - Flow -Flow nozzle -
Pitot tube - Annular flow element manometers - Magnetic flow meters - Principles
of operation - Construction details - Characteristics - Application.
Ultrasonic flow meters - Principles of operation.
Dopler flow meter in characteristic application and advantages.
Shunt flow meter - Target flow meter - Turbine flow meter.
BOOK FOR STUDY:
Instrumentation: Measurements and Analysis - Nakra and Choudry - T M H -1988

CC - VIII: ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTATION
UNIT - I: BRIDGES
Principles of network theorems - Thevenin's and Norton's theorem - Bridges :
Kelvin's double bridge - AC bridges - Maxwell, Owen, Schering and deSauty's bridges
- Wien bridges.
13
UNIT - II: ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS - I
Amplified D.C. meter - Chopper stabilized amplifier - A.C. Voltmeter using
rectifiers - Electronic multimeter - Differential voltmeter - Digital voltmeters -
Component measuring instruments - Sources of error - Q meter - vector impedance
meter - Vector voltmeter - R.F. power and voltage measurements.
UNIT - III: ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENTS - II
Signal conditioning systems - DC and AC carrier systems - Instrumentation
amplifiers - Vibrating capacitor amplier - Analog to digital data and sampling - A/D and
D/A convertor (successive approximation, ladder and dual slope conversions) - Simple
programs of microprocessor based measuring system - Magnetic tape recorders - EM
recording - Digital recording.
Unit IV - Recording Devices
Recorders necessity - Recording requirements - Analog recorders - Graphic recorders -
strip chart recorders - Galvanometer types recorders - Null type recorders - Potentio
metric recorders - Single and multipoint recorders - X-Y recorders - Magnetic tape
recorders - Frequency modulated recorders and digital tape recorders.
Unit V - CRD
CRD - Construction and action - Bean transit time and frequency limitations -
Measurement of potential, current, resistance, phase and frequency - Special purpose
oscilloscopes - Sampling storage oscilloscope.
Books for Study
1. Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement techniques - W.D. Cooper and A.D.
Helfrick - PHI - Third edn. - 1989

CC - IX : Digital Electronics
14
Unit I
Number System and Logic Gates
Binary, octal, decimal and hexadecimal number systems - code conversion - weighted
binary code - Non -weighted binary code - Gray code - Error detection code -
Alphanumeric code.
Boolean algebra - Fundamental concepts - Basic laws of Boolean algebra - Duality
theorem de Morgan's theorem - Basic logic gates - universal gates.
Unit II
Simplification of Logic Expressions
Introduction to combinational logic - SOP and POS forms of expressions - Minterms
and maxterms - Reducing Boolean expressions using Boolean laws - Karnaugh map -
Karnaugh map Simplification - Incompletely specified functions.
Unit III
Combinational Logic Systems
Half adder - Full adder - Half Subtractor - Full subtractor - Full subtractor 2's
complement adder, subtractor circuit - BCD adder - Decoder - Encoder - Multiplexer -
Demultiplexer.
Unit IV - Sequential Logic Systems
R-S flip flop using NAND gates - R-S flip flop using - Master slave - J-K flip flop - 3
bit register using flip flops - controlled shift register - Counters - Up counter - Down
counter - Ring counter - Mod - 10 counter.
Unit V - Digital Instrumentes, A/D, and D/A conversion
Time - Interval meter - Frequency meter - Digital volt meter - Digital filter -
Signal correlators - Digital oscillators
A/D and D/A conversion - Flash converter

CC - XI - MAJOR PRACTICAL IV
BASIC AND FORTRAN LANGUAGE
2. Arranging names in alphabetical and ascending order
3. Arranging numbers in descending and ascending order
4. Calculation of mean, mean deviation, standard deviation
5. Solving systems of linear algebraic equations by Gauss elimination method
6. Picking largest & smallest the given set of numbers
7. Addition, subtraction and multiplication of matrices
8. Sequential file handling
9. Preparation of payroll
10. Inventory control
16
11. Determination of correlation and regression coefficient
12. Sum of Series - Sine series
13. Fibbonacci series
14. Testing for prime numbers
15. Marks sheet preparation.
******
MAJOR BASED ELECTIVE I -ELECTRICAL MACHINES
Unit - I: DC MACHINES
Constructional details of DC machines-Operation of DC generators- EMF equation -
Characteristics of different types of generators-Commutation - Armature reaction-
Operation of DC motors - Torque equation - Characteristics of different types of DC
motors.
Unit II: TRANSFORMERS
Principle -Types-General constructional features of single phase transformers-phasor
transformer-phasor diagram and equivalent circuit - Regulation and efficiency - Auto
transformers.
Unit III: SYNCHRONOUS MACHINES
Principle-Type and general constructional features - Synchronous generators -
characteristics - EMF equation - Armature reaction -Regulation-Power angle curve -
Phasor diagram of synchronous motor.
Unit IV: INDUCTION MACHINES
Types-Principles of operation - Types of single phase, induction motor- phasor diagrams
and equivalent circuit - Slip torque characteristics - Starting, breaking and speed control
methods.
Unit V: MISCELLANEOUS MACHINES (Qualitative study only)
DC/AC Servo motors -Stopping motors- Brushless motors -Reactance and hysteresis
motors- Linear induction motors- Cross field machines

CC - XII : Process Control
17
Unit I : Introduction
Basic control systems with examples - Open loop and closed loop systems - Basic
elements in control systems - methods of analysis of physical systems - Historical
development - Manual, semi automatic, automatic and complex controls.
Unit II : Process Dynamics
Differential equation, transfer function and block diagram - Block diagram reduction
techniques - signal flow graph - model for sample process - Elements of process control
- Process variables - degree of freedom - Dynamics of physical system - Liquid, gas and
thermal processors - Mathematical modeling.
Unit III : Frequency Response
Bode plot, polar plot, closed loop, response form open loop system - Nichol's chart.
Unit IV : Controllers and Actuators
Characteristic of two position, multiplication, proportional, integral an derivative control
modes - composite control modes - P, P plus I, P plus D and P plus I Plus D control
modes - Examples.
Unit V
Final control elements - Electrical, pneumatic signal conversion - Electronic pneumatic
and hydraulic actuators - controls valves - Valve positioners.

CC - XIII -- COMPUTER PROGRAMMING
Unit I : INTRODUCTION
Character set - Constants - Variables - Arithmetic expressions - Library functions -
Arithmetic Statements - FORMAT specifications - READ and WRITE statements
unformatted I/O statements.
18
Unit II : CONTROL STATEMENTS
Unconditional GOTO and computer GOTO - Arithmetic and Logical IF - IF ...THEN
..ELSE statements - DO loops - DATA statements - logical and complex statements -
String manipulations - WHILE structure.
Unit III : ARRAYS AND SUBPROGRAMS
Array declarative statements - Implied DO loops - One dimensional array -
Multidimensional array - Function sub - programs - Subroutine subprograms -
COMMON - EQUIVALANCE.
C LANGUAGE
Unit IV : CONTROL STATEMENTS
Variables - Data type - Constants - Declarations - Arithmetic and relational operators -
Type conversion - Increments and decrements operation - Assignment operation -
Bitwise logical operation - Order of equation - Associativity - Control structures - IF, IF
ELSE, Switch, FOR, WHILE, DO WHILE, breake, continue - Label and goto statements
Unit V : ARRAYS AND POINTERS
Functions - Formal and actual argument - Return statement storage classes scope -
Arrays - Pointer - Arithmetic - Array of strings - String functions - Pointer and
structure - Nested structure - Type definition - Unions Files - Simple programs.

MAJOR BASED ELECTIVE II - MATERIALS TECHNOLOGY
Unit I: ENGINEERING METERIALS
Properties of engineering materials - Electrical, mechanical, magnetic, optical,
thermal, dielectric, chemical and physical criteria for selection of materials for
engineering applications.
Steels and cast iron: Classification - Effect of carbon, other alloying elements and heat
treatment on mechanical properties.
Applications: Applications and importance of nonferrous metals: Alloys of copper,
nickel, chromium, lead, magnesium and zinc
Unit II: ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC PROPERTIES
Conduction in metals - Effect of temperature on the electrical conductivity of metals-
Thermal conductivity of metals-High conductivity materials - Nonmetallic conductors.
Delectrics - Dielectric materials - Ferroelectrics - Classification of magnetic
materials -Origin of ferromagnetism - Ferromagnetic domains -Ferrites -
Magnetostriction - Magnetic resonance.
Superconductivity - Cryogenic or hyperconductors.
Unit III: MODERN ENGINEERING MATERIALS
Ceramics, polymers, plastics and high temperature materials- Electrical properties of
polymeric materials - Types of polymeric materials, polythene, polystrone, polyvinyl
chloride, Teflon polystors, bakelite-Application of polymers.
Varnishes and enamels - Types -Applications
Unit IV: MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR
Creep: Fundamental components-Transient and viscous creep- Creep properties of
metals and nonmetals -Stress relaxation.
Fatigue: Mechanism of fatigue - Fatigue properties - Fatigue damage - Fatigue
stress concentration.
Hardness: Hardness and structure - Hardness measurement
Unit V: CHOICE OF MATERIALS
Elastic materials - Materials for spring , bellows, diaphragm - Bourdon tube -
Selection criteria - materials for piping, pipe fittings, choice of materials for different
20
operating conditions like temperature, pressure, humidity and corrosion - Materials for
control valve body and trim -Selection Criteria - Materials for strain gauges, RTD' s ,
thermistors, orifice plates and rotameter - Corrosion - Prevention and Control.

MAJOR BASED ELECTIVE III - BIO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION
Unit I: INTRODUCTION TO PHYSIOLOGY AND ANATOMY
Cell and its function-Anatomy and physiology of respiratory system-cardio vascular
system-Endocrine system-Central nervous system.
Bio-Electric phenomenon: Basic bio potentials-Bio electricity - Resting and action
potentials-Sodium Pump generation- Characteristics of electric signals from heart, brain
and muscle.
Unit II: ELECTRODES
Half cell potential-Electrode paste -Electrode material -Metal micro electrodes-
Depth needle electrodes-Surface electrodes-Multi point and floating needle electrodes-
Distortion in the measured signals-chemical electrodes.
Unit III: DIAGNOSING INSTRUMENTS
Computer axial tomography- Thermography -Blood pressure monitors-Respiration
rate monitors-pH meters.
Unit IV: RECORDERS
Introduction - Characteristics - ECG - EEG - EMG - ERG - Electro oculograph
(ECG) - high accuracy recorders - offline analyzers - Recorders.
Unit V: ASSISTING DEVICES
Introduction - Pace makers - Artificial heart valves- Defibrilators - Nerve and
muscle -Stimulators - Heart lung machine -kidney machine.

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