B.Sc in Biochemistry

Bharathidasan University
In Tiruchirappalli

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Important information

  • Bachelor
  • Tiruchirappalli

Important information

Where and when

Starts Location
On request
Bharathidasan University.Palkalaiperur, Tamil Nadu, India
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Course programme

Unit 1
Carbohydrates: Classification and structural elucidation of glucose and fructose.
Interconversion of sugars. Properties, structure and biological functions of mono,
di, oligo and polysaccharides. Homoglycans and Heteroglycans. Blood group
Unit 2
Amino acids: Structure, classification, physical and chemical properties. Titration
curves of aminoacids. Colour reactions of Amino acids. Peptides: Amides and
peptides, peptide bond, peptide synthesis, biologically important peptides.
Proteins: classification and Biological importance. Primary structure, Secondary,
tertiary and quaternary structure- forces stabilizing the structure of proteins.
Denaturation, isolation and characterization. Precipitation by salts, separation by
solubility differences- isoelectric pH, salting out. Purification of proteins.
Unit 3
Nucleic acids: Components of mono nucleotides, pyrimidines and purines.
Nucleotides, nucleosides, nucleoside 5' diphosphates and 5' triphophates.
Polynucleotides: DNA and RNA. Composition and structure- their biological
importance hydrolysis of nucleic acids by acids, bases and enzymes.
Denaturation and renaturation. Isolation, separation and purification of DNA
and RNA.
Unit 4
Lipids: nomenclature, classification and Biological significance. Simple lipids:
types of fatty acids, triglycerides, waxes, steroids, prostaglandins and their
properties. Compound lipids: Phospholipids, sphingolipids and glycolipids.
Analysis of oils: Reichert-Meisel value, Iodine number, saponification value, acid
number and acetyl value.
Unit 5
Vitamins. Source, structure, biological role, daily requirement and deficiency
manifestation of the fat soluble vitamins A,D,E & K. Water soluble vitamins-
Ascorbic acid, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine, niacin, pantothenic acid, lipoic
acid, biotin, folic acid and vitamin B12.

Quantitative Analysis
1. Qualitative analysis of carbohydrates (glucose, fructose, maltose,
galactose, sucrose, lactose), Identification of both monosaccharides and
disaccharides in mixtures.
2. Color reactions of amino acids like tryptophan, tyrosine, arginine, proline
and histidine.
3. Reactions of lipids: Solubility, acrolien test for unsaturation, Libermann-
Burchard test for cholesterol.
4. Acid number, iodine number and saponification number of lipids.
5. Estimation of reducing sugar by Benedict's quantitative method.
6. Estimation of amino acids by formal titration.
7. Estimation of ascorbic acid by titrimetric method using 2,6-dichlorophenol
8. Estimation of sodium and potassium by flame photometry.
9. Determination of saponification number

Unit 1
Laws of thermodynamics- First, second, third and zero law. Law of mass action.
Oxidation reduction reactions. Potentiometric titration of oxidation- reduction
reactions. Principle and applications of oxygen electrode Electrochemical
techniques- Measurement of pH, Standard hydrogen electrode-, Henderson-
Hessel balch equation. Types of buffer, role of Buffers in biological system.
Colloids- types and membrane phenomena - Electrical charge of colloidal
particles. Surface tension, adsorption, viscosity and osmotic pressure. Donnan
membrane equilibrium. Determination of molecular weight by osmotic pressure
and viscosity.
Unit 2
Chromatography: adsorption, partition chromatography- Principle, methods
and applications of paper chromatography, Thin layer chromatography, column
chromatography, Gas-liquid chromatography, and Ion exchange
chromatography. High performance liquid chromatography, molecular sieve
chromatography and affinity chromatography.
Unit 3
Electrophoresis: Principle, instrumentation and applications of paper
electrophoresis, Agarose gel electrophoresis, PAGE, cellulose acetate
electrophoresis, Immunoelectrophoresis, Isoelectricfocussing and molecular
weight determination. Principle and applications of sourthen and western
Principles of centrifugation. Low speed and high speed centrifugation.
Preparative, Analytical ultra centrifuge- Instrumentation and applications. Basic
principle and technique of subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation.
Unit 4
Spectroscopy: Colorimetry, Beer-Lambert's law, measurement of extinction,
calibration curve. Spectrophotometer, absorption spectra, components of
instrument principle and applications of spectrofluorimetry and MALDI-TOF.
Principle, instrumentation and applications of flame photometer, atomic
absorption, NMR, ESR and mass spectroscopy.
Unit 5
Radioisotopes: Radioactive decay, units of radioactivity. Measurement of
radioactivity- Geiger muller counter. Scintillation counter, and Autoradiography.
Applications of radioisotopes in Biology. Manometry: The Warberg constant
volume- Gilson differential respirometer- Uses of Warberg and Gilson

Unit 1
Digestive system: Anatomy of the digestive system, Salivary, Gastric and Biliary
Secretions- composition and functions. Intestinal hormones, movements in
Gastro intestinal tract, Secretion, digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
Absorption in the large intestine; Digestion and absorption of carbohydrates,
lipids and proteins.
Unit 2
Body fluids: Extracellular fluid-plasma, interstitial fluid and transcellular fluid.
Intracellular fluid: Lymph & Blood-composition, functions, osmolarity of the
body fluids, ionic composition, electrolytes, body buffers. Blood cells,
haemoglobin, haemopoiesis, blood coagulation and blood groups.
Unit 3
Circulation: Structure of Heart and blood vessels, cardiac cycles, cardiac factors
controlling blood pressure, electrocardiogram. Functions of heart. Respiration:
Anatomy, and physiology of respiration, pulmonary surfactant, exchange of
gases between lung and blood and between blood and tissues. Role of lung in
acid-base balance.
Unit 4
Excretory system: Structure and functions of kidney. Urine- composition and
formation. Renal regulation of acid-base balance. Muscle: Kinds of muscle,
structure. Mechanism and theories of muscle contraction.

Unit 5
Central nervous system- General organisation. Functional units. Resting and
action potential- conduction of nerve impulse. Synaptic transmission. Brain-
chemical composition, metabolism, metabolic adaptation, neurotransmitters and
cAMP. Biochemical aspects of learning and memory. Enkephalins and

Unit I
Introduction to Health and Diseases : Electrolytes anda cid-base balance -
Regulation of electrolyte content of body fluids and mainteneance of pH,
reabsorption of electrolytes. Respiratory & renal mechanism, Acidosis &
alkalosis. A brief review of units and abbrevations used in expressing
concentrations and standard solutions. Specimen collection and procesing
(blood, urine and feaces). Anti-coagulant and préservatives for blood and urine.
Unit II
Disorders of Carbohydrate Metabolism : Diabetes melitus, glucose and galactose
tolerance tests, sugar levels in blood, renal threshold for glucose, factors
influencing blood glucose level, glycogen storage diseases, pentosuria,
galactosemia. Blood glucose homeostasis - role of tissues and hormones.
Unit III
Disorders of Lipids and Proteins : Plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol, triglycerides
& phospholipids in health and disease, hyperlipidemia, hyperlipoproteinemia,
Gauchers disease, Tay-Sachs and Niemann-Pick disease, ketone bodies,
Abetalipoproteinema. Abnormalities in Nitrogen Metabolism-Uremia,
hyperuricemia, porphyria and factors affecting nitrogen balance.

Unit IV
Disorders of liver and kidney : Jaundice, fatty liver, normal and abnormal
functions of liver and kidney, Liver function test, Renal function test. Diagnostic
Enzymes - Enzymes in health and diseases. Biochemical diagnosis of diseases by
enzyme assays SGOT, SGPT, CPK, Cholinesterase, LDH
Unit V
Inborn Errors of Metabolism : Phenylketonuria, alkaptonuria, albinism,
tyrosinosis, maple syrup urine disease, Lesch-Nyban syndrome, sickle cell
anemia, Histidinemia

Unit 1
Enzymes- Definition, nomenclature and classification of enzymes,
properties.Structure and functions of coenzymes. Metallo enzymes and metal
enzymes. Units of enzyme activity, turn over number. Non protein enzymes-
ribozymes and abzymes.
Unit 2
Isolation and purification of enzymes: Methods of purification. Separation
procedures based on molecular size, solubility difference and electric charge and
selection adsorption. Criteria of purity of enzymes.
Unit 3
Enzyme kinetics: Factors influencing enzyme activity, Derivation of Michalis-
Menton equation, Lineweaver-Burk plot, activators, Inhibitors kinetics - Types of
inhibition-Competitive, noncompetitive, uncompetitive, feed back inhibition and
allosteric inhibition.

Unit 4
Mechanism of enzyme action- active site, Lock and Key model, induced fit
hypothesis. Mechanism of enzyme catalysis, enzyme-substrate complex
formation, mechanism of bisubstrate reactions. Allosteric enzymes.
Unit 5
Multienzyme complex- pyruvate dehydrogenase, Isoenzymes of lactate
dehydrogenase. Immobilized enzymes- principles and applications: Enzymes as
a marker in clinical diagnosis. Industrial applications of enzymes.

1. Preparation of buffers and measurement of pH.
2. Titrable acidity of amino acids.
3. Paper chromatography of sugars and amino acids.
4. Thin layer chromatography of amino acids and lipids.
5. Separation of plant pigments by column chromatography.
6. Paper electrophoresis.
7. Donnon membrane equilibrium.
8. Preparation of cell free homogenate, isolation of mitochondria and nuclei from
rat liver and chloroplast from leaves.
9. Simple demonstration by manometry.
10. Isolation of DNA and RNA: Estimation of RNA by orcinol method and DNA
by diphenyl amine method.

Unit 1
Sources, food composition, properties and storage of common foods. Functions of food
in relation to health- classification of foods based on nutrients. Food preservation-
reasons for preserving foods, methods of preservation - an understanding of the
principles involved, food additive in processed food and their effects. Food groups to
provide nutritive requirement for normal health- body building foods, energy foods and
protective foods.
Unit 2
Basics for computing nutrient requirements: latest concepts in dietary recommendations,
RDA - ICMR and WHO: their uses and limitations. Definition of unit of energy - cal, RQ,
SDA and NPU. Energy metabolism: Basal and resting metabolism - influencing factors,
Methods to determine energy requirements and expenditure. The sources and functions
of essential nutrients - proteins (high biological and low biological value), carbohydrates
and fats. Sources and functions of dietary fibre, Pro and Prebiotics.
Unit 3
Micro and macro mineral nutrients: Distribution sources, metabolic functions and
deficiency manifestations - Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Iron, Copper,
Selenium and Zinc.
Fat and water soluble vitamins - Occurrence, properties and function - Hyber and
Hypovitaminosis. Role of Vitamin as Antioxidant.
Unit 4
Nutrition through life cycle. Special needs of Infants, children, adolescents, pregnant and
lactating women, convalescents and old persons
Unit 5
Principles of diet therapy. Diet during stressed conditions- laborers. Patients- therapeutic
diets for anemia, malnutrition, obesity, diabetes mellitus and allergy.

Unit 1
Bioenergetics: Free energy and entropy changes in biological system, coupling of
endergonic and exergonic processes. High energy phosphates and their role in
redox reaction. Biological oxidation.Enzymes involved in oxidation and
reduction- oxidases, dehydrogenases, hydroperoxidase and oxygenases.
Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases system.
Unit 2
Mechanism of oxidative phosphorylation. Chemiosmotic theory, respiratory
chain complexes ,oxidative phosphorylation, uncouplers, inhibitors, ionophores.
Mitochondrial transport systems. Malate and glycerophosphate shuttles.
Membrane bound enzymes in energy production.
Unit 3
Carbohydrate metabolism: Glycolysis and its energetic. gluconeogenesis,
oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA, TCA cycle and its regulation , energetics of
anaplerotic reactions; Hexose monophosphate pathway, glycogens and
glycogenolysis, glucuronic acid cycle; glyoxalate cycle; metabolism of galactose
and fructose.
Unit 4
Lipid metabolism: Biosynthesis of fatty acids- biosynthesis and catabolism of
triglycerides, phospholipids and glycolipids. Oxidation of fatty acids Α, Β and Γ
oxidation; Cholesterol- synthesis, transport degradation and excretion.
Ketogenesis; plasma lipoproteins- metabolism.
Unit 5
Protein, nucleic acid and porphyrins metabolism: Deamination, decarboxylation,
transamination of amino acids, glycogenic and ketogenic amino acids, urea cycle,
biosynthesis and catabolism of amino acids, metabolism of purine and
pyrimidine nucleotides. Biosynthesis and degradation of porphyrins, Heme, Bile
pigments formation.

Unit 1
Identification of DNA as genetic material- Aveng, Merlead, Maccarty experiment
- Griffth experiment. Genomic organization - Histone and Non histone protein
coding and Non coding DNA - DNA replication semiconservative mode of
replication. Enzyme machinery for DNA replication- topoisomerases,
polymerases, ligase- supercoiling of DNA. DNA damage and repair photo
reactivation excision and post replication- repair.
Unit 2
Transcription. RNA polymerase, strages of transcription, inhibitors of RNA
synthesis, reverse transcription. Post transcriptional modification of t RNA, r
RNA and m RNA.
Unit 3
Genetic code: Major features of genetic code and Wobble hypothesis. Gene-
Cistron, recon, muton, one gene one enzyme hypothesis.
Translation- structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes. Mechanism of
translation- amino acid activation, initiation, elongation and termination.
Inhibitors of protein synthesis. Post translation modification of protein
Unit 4
Gene expression- prokaryotic transcriptional regulation. Enzyme induction and
repression. The operon hypothesis. Lac, trp operons.
Unit 5
Genetic engineering: Vehicles for cloning- plasmids, phages and cosmids.
endonucleases and their applications. Splicing of DNA molecules- cohesive end,
poly dA-dT tailing and blunt end ligation methods. Outlines of gene cloning:
plasmids, cosmids as vectors. Restriction endonucleases and ligases- selection of
clones. Applications of genetic engineering in medicine

Unit 1
Bacteriae. Eubacteria, cyanobacteria, Archaebacteria, Bergey's classification
scheme for bacteria. Staining of bacteria. Size and shape of bacterial cells. Modes
of reproduction, enumeration, bacterial growth curve, synchronous growth,
physical and chemical methods of controlling bacterial growth.Cultivation of
bacteria. Nutritional requirements. Types of media. Factors affecting growth.
Choice of media and conditions of incubation. Isolation and maintenance of pure
Unit 2
Fungi, Algae and viruses. Fungi- classification, cultivation and morphology of
yeasts and molds. Control of fungal growth. Algae- occurrence, characteristics,
classification and biological, importance. Viruses of bacteria, bacteriophages,
general characteristics.
Unit 3
Food Microbiology- Food spoilage, food preservation, fermented foods. Infected
foods and human illness- botulism, Clostridium welchi poisoning, Staphylococus
poisoning, Salmonella- infection. Dairy microbiology- contamination of milk by
bacteria. Bacterial count. Reactions occuring in milk. Pasteurization and
sterilization, fermented milk products, cheese.
Unit 4
Medical Microbiology. Infection- sources and transmission of infection. Types of
infection and factors influencing infection. Harmful microbes- endo and
exotoxins. Antimicrobial agents. Sterilization and disinfection.
Unit 5
Microscopical examination of microorganism-Bright field, Dark field principle
and applications of fluorescent and phase contrast, scanning electron microscope
and transmission microscopy

Food and Enzyme Analysis
1. Moisture content of food materials.
2. Ash content of food materials.
3. Estimation of carbohydrate by Anthrone method.
4. Estimation of fat content in food materials (Wheat, rice, flour, gram flour).
5. Estimation of nitrogen, iron, phosphorus, calcium.
6. Determination of specific activity, m (Saturation method), pH and temperature
alkaline phosphatase and amylase.

Unit 1 Fermentation Biotechnology
Basic principles of microbial growth. The bio reactor- types and operation.
Fermentation culture medium. Downstream processing.
Unit 2 Food and enzyme technology
Biotechnology in food industry- food fermentation, fermented foods and milk
products. Immobilised cells methods of immobilisation, properties and
applications. Production of industrial enzyme- Amylase.
Unit 3 Energy and Environmental Biotechnology
Biological fuel generation- Ethanol and methane from biomass. Waste water and
sewage treatment. Bioremediation- oil spill clean up. Microbial mining.
Unit 4 Recombinant DNA technology
Gene organisation and flow of genetic information (elementary details only).
Basic principles of cloning: restriction endonucleases, cloning vectors,
introduction into host by electroporation and microinjection, selection and
screening of recombinants.
Unit 5 Plant and Animal Biotechnology
Applications of rDNA technology in agriculture and animal husbandry:
development of transgenic plants and animals- basic principles and applications.
The human genome project (elementary details only).

Unit 1
Gastric function tests- hyper, hypo and achlorhydria. Liver function tests.
Jaundice hemolytic, hepatic and obstructive jaundice. Renal function tests.
Biochemical findings in nephritis and nephrotic syndrome. Normal and
abnormal constituents of urine.
Unit 2
Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism: Sugar level in normal blood-
maintenance of blood sugar concentration- endocrine influence on carbohydrate
metabolism, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, glycosuria, renal threshold value,
diabetes mellitusclassification, complications; Glucose tolerance test (GTT),
diabetic coma, diabetic ketoacidosis, glycogen storage diseases, fructosuria,
galactosemia and hypoglycemic agents.
Unit 3
Disorders of lipid metabolism. Plasma lipoproteins- lipoproteinemias, lipid
metabolism in liver and adipose tissue. Fatty liver. Hypo and
hypercholesterolemia. Atherosclerosis.
Unit 4
Disorders of amino acid metabolism. Plasma proteins in health and disease.
Disorders of purine, pyrimidine and porphyrin metabolism. Hyperuricemia and
gout. Lesch- Nyhan syndrome. Orotic aciduria, porphyrias.
Unit 5
Disorders of endocrine system. Disorders of thyroid, pituitary, adrenal medulla,
and sex hormones. Disturbances in blood clotting mechanisms- hemophilia and
anemia. Complications of Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

Clinical Biochemistry
1. Qualitative tests of urine. Abnormal constituents- sugar, protein (albumin),
bodies, bile pigments and bile salts.
2. Quantitative estimations in Blood
a. Glucose
b. Cholesterol
c. Calcium
d. Urea
e. Iron
3. Quantitative estimation in urine.
a. Sugar
b. Urea
c. Creatinine
d. Creatine
4. ESR, PCV, TC/DC count, haemoglobin content and blood grouping.

Unit 1
Classification of drugs based on sources: mode of administration, site of action,
absorption of drugs, Drugs distribution and elimination, Role of kidney in
Unit 2
Drug metabolism: Chemical pathways of drug metabolism. Phase I and Phase II
reactions, role of cytochrome P450, non-microsomal reactions of drug
metabolism, drug metabolising enzymes.
Unit 3
Chemotherapy: Biochemical mode of action of antibiotics- penicillin and
chloramphenicol. Action of alkaloids, antiviral and antimalarial substances.
Biochemical mechanism of drug resistance.
Unit 4
Adverse responses and side effects of drugs: Alergy, Drug intolerance, Drug
addiction, drugs abuses and their biological effects.
Unit 5
Anaesthetics: General and local, gaseous anaesthetics, ether and vinyl
ether,halogenated hydrocarbons like chlorofom, intravenous
anaestheticsthropentanesodium and cocaine. Antispetics and disinfectants-
Phenols and related compounds, formaldehyde and ethanol. Organic
pharmaceuticals- their role as preservatives and food additives.

Major Based Elective - II : ENDOCRINOLOGY
Unit 1
Hormones- definition, classification, biosynthesis and circulation in blood.
Mechanism of hormone action. Plasma membrane receptors. Adenylate cyclase,
Role of G-proteins. Protein kinases, tyrosine, kinase, Inositol phosphate. Calcium,
calmodulin. Mechanism of steroid hormone receptors- Mechanism of action of
steroid hormone.
Unit 2
Hormones of the thyroid Biosynthesis and biological actions of thyroid
hormones. Antithyroid agents. Thyroid disease- thyrotoxicosis, Goiter, Grave's
disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Parathyroid hormone- Biological actions
regulation of calcium and phosphorous metabolism. Calcitonin. Calcitriol-
Biosynthesis and functions. Hyper and hypocalcemia. Hyperparathyroidism,
hypoparathyroidism, Paget's disease. Ricket's and osteomalacia.
Unit 3
Hypothalamus and pituitary hormones
Vasopressin and oxytocin- synthesis and biological effects. Hypothalamic
releasing factors. Anterior pituitary hormones- actions. Growth promoting and
lactogenic hormones. Glycoprotein hormones the POMC family. Endorphins,
MSH. Gigantism, Acromegaly, Dwarfism and Diabetes insipidus.
Unit 4
Pancreatic hormones- Insulin- Biosynthesis, regulation of secretion and biological
actions. Mechanism of action of insulin. Glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic
polypeptide. Insulin like growth factors.
Unit 5
Adrenal hormones- Glucocorticoids, Mineralocorticoids- synthesis and biological
effects. Catecholamines: biosynthesis and biological effects. Gonadal hormones-
Androgens and estrogens. Ovarian cycle. Abnormal secretion of adrenal
hormones- Addison's disease. Cushing's syndrome, congenital adrenal
hyperplasia, phaeochromocytoma.

Major Based Elective - III: IMMUNOLOGY
Unit 1
The Immune system: Introduction: Primary and Secondary Lymphodoil organ,
Lymphocytes, their origin and differentiation. Antigen presenting cells-
macrophages, dendritic cells, langerhans cell, their origin and function.
Mechanism of phagocytosis, identification of cell types of immune system,
complement and their biological function- types of immune responses, immune
Unit 2
Immunoglobulins: Structure of Immunoglobulins, antibody specificity, biological
functions of immunoglobulins, generation of diversity. Types and characteristics
of antigen. Antigen- antibody interactions, antitoxins, agglutination, complement
system - opsonin, bacteriolysin and precipitation.
Unit 3
Immunity: Types of immunity- Innate immunity- surface barriers phagocytosis.
Acquired immunity- active and passive. Antitoxic, antibacterial and antiviral
immunity. Immune response.
Humoral and cell mediated immunity and their interaction. Lymphokines and
interleukins- their role in immune response.
Unit 4
Immunity to infection: Hypersensitivity reactions: types of hypersensitivity,
mechanism of T-cell activation, macrophage activation and granuloma
formation. Transplantation- Immunologic response graft rejection mechanism
and prevention of graft rejection, immuno suppressive drugs. HLA-immune
response genes and diseasepathogenesis of auto immune diseases.
Unit 5
Immunochemical techniques. Production of antisera- the precipitation reaction,
immunodiffusion, immunoelectrophoresis, immunofluorescence, complement
fixation. Principle, technique and applications of RIA and ELISA. Hybridoma

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