B.Sc in ChemistryBharathidasan University
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Unit 1: ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND PERIODIC PROPERTIES
Atomic Orbitals, quantum, numbers - Principal, azimuthal, magnetic and spin Quantum
numbers and their significance-Principles governing the occupancy of electrons in
various quantum levels-Pauli's exclusion principle, Hund's rule, Aufbau Principle, (n+/)
rule, stability of half-filled and fully filled orbitals.
Classification as s, p, d & f block elements, variation of atomic volume, atomic and ionic
radii ionisation potential, electron affinity and electronegativity along periods and groups
- Variation of metallic characters - Factors influencing the periodic properties.
Unit 2: PRINCIPLES OF WET CHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ACID
- BASE THEORY
Qualitative Analysis: Solubility Product - Principle of Elimination of interfering anions,
Common Lon Effect - Complexation reactions including spot tests in qualitative analysis
- Reactions involved in separation and identifications of cations and anions in the
analysis - Semi Micro Techniques .
Titrimetry: Definitions of Molarity normality, Molarity and mole fraction - Primary
and Secondary standards - Types of titrimetric reactions - acid-base, redox, precipitation
and complex metric titrations - Indicators - Effect of change in pH - Neutralization,
redox, adsorption and metal ion indicators.
Acids and Bases: Arrhenius, Protonic and Lewis Theories of Acids and Bases -
usnovich's generalized definition - Relative strengths of Acids and Bases - Dissociation
constant of Acids and Bases - Levelling effect of water. Hard and soft acids and bases
Oxidation and Reduction Reactions: Oxidation number concept - Balancing redox
equations by Oxidation number method and lon-electron method - Equivalent weight of
oxidizing and reducing agents.
Unit 3: COVALENT BONDING AND STRUCTURER
Covalent bonding - Concept of hybridization - Structure of organic molecules based on
sp³, sp² and sp hybridization - Covalent bond properties of organic molecules: bond
length, bond angle, bond energy, bond polarity, dipolemoment, inductive, mesomeric,
electromeric, resonance and hyperconjugative effects - Naming of organic compounds
(up to 10 carbon systems) - Hydrocarbons - Mono functional compounds - Bifunctional
compounds - Isomerism - Types of isomerism (structural and
stereoisomerisms) with appropriate examples .
Unit 4: CHEMISTRY OF ALKANES AND CYCLOALKANES
Petroleum source of alkanes - Methods of preparing alkanes and cycloalkanes -
Chemical properties - Mechanism of free radical substitution in alkanes by halogenation
- Uses - Conformational study of ethane and n-butane-Relative stability of cycloalkanes
from cyclopropane up to cyclooctane - Bayer's Strain theory - Limitations -
Cyclohexane and mono - and disubstituted cyclohexanes.
Unit 5: ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BASIC QUANTUM MECHANICS
Dualism of light - Wave nature of radiation classical theory of electromagnetic, radiation
and classical expression for energy in term of amplitude. Particle nature of radiation -
Black body radiation and Planck's quantum theory, photo electric dualism electric effect
and Compton effect of matter - de Broglie hypothesis and Davisson and Germer
experiment. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Schrödinger wave equation - argument
in favour of Schrödinger wave equation. Physical significance of (psi) function.
Properties of function - well - behaved function. Quantum numbers and their
significance. Wave picture of electron - Concept of atomic orbitals. Shapes of s, p and d
orbitals. Nodal planes and nodal points in atomic orbitals g and u character of atomic
Core Course II - Practical - I- Volumetric Analysis
I Titrimetric Quantitative Analysis
1. Estimation of Hcl by NaOH using a standard oxalic acid solution
2. Estimation of Na2Co3 by Hcl using a standard Na2 Co3 solution
3. Estimation of oxalic acid bu KmnO4 using a standard oxalic acide
4. Estimation of Iron (II) sulphate by KmnO4 using a standard Mohr's
5. Estimation of Ca (II) by KmnO4 using a standard oxalic acid solution.
6. Estimation of KmnO4 by thio using a standard K2Cr2O7 solution.
7. Estimation of Fe (III) by using K2Cr2O7 using a standard Mohr's salt
solution using inhternal and external indicators.
8. Estimation of copper (II) sulphate by K2Cr2O7 solution
9. Estimation of Mg (II) by EDTA solution
10. Estimation of Ca (II) by EDTA solution
11. Estimation of As2O3 using I2 solution and standard Arsereoun oxide
12. Estimation of chloride (in reutral and acid media)
II. Applied Experiments
1. Estimation of Total Hardness of water
2. Estimation of Bleaching Powder
3. Estimation of saponification value of an oil
4. Estimation of copper in brass
Scheme of Valuation
CORE COURSE III - GENERAL CHEMISTRY - II
Unit 1: Chemical Bonding
lonic bond - Lattice Energy - Born - Haber Cycle - Pauling and Muliken's Scales of
electro negativity - Polarizing power and Polarisability - partial ionic character from
electro negativity - Transitions from ionic to covalent character and vice versa - Fajan's
VESPR Theory - Shapes of simple inorganic molecules ( Becl2, Sicl4, Pcl5, SF6,IF7,
NH3, XeF6, BF3,H2O ) - VB Theory - Principles of hybridization - Becl2 - MO Theory -
Bonding and antibonding orbitals - Application of MO Theory to H2,He2,N2,O2,HF and
CO - Comparison of VB and MO Theories.
Unit 2: CHEMISTRY OF s-BLOCK ELEMENTS
Position of Hydrogen in the Periodic Table, atomic hydrogen, nascent hydrogen,
occluded hydrogen, uses of hydrogen. General characteristics of s-block elements -
General characteristics of Group IA - diagonal relationship between Li and Mg -
Extraction of Lithium - Physical and Chemical properties of Lithium - Uses - Extraction
of Sodium - Physical and Chemical properties - Uses - Preparation of NaOH
(Laboratory and Industrial methods) - Properties - Uses - Preparation of Na2CO3
(Laboratory and Industrial methods) - Properties - Uses - Extraction of Potassium -
Properties - Uses - Chemistry of KOH, KBr and K1.
General characteristics of Elements of Group 11A - diagonal relationship between Be
and AI - Extraction of Beryllium - Physical and Chemical properties of Be - Uses
Extraction of Mg - Physical and Chemical properties - Uses - Chemistry of some
compounds of Mg: MgCO3, MgSO4,MgCl2, Mg (NH4) PO4 6H2O - Extraction of Ca -
Physical and Chemical properties - Uses - Cement manufacture - Types - Chemistry of
setting of cement.
Unit 3: CHEMISTRY OF ALKENES, ALKYNES AND DIENES
Nomenclature - Geometrical Isomerism - Petroleum source of alkenes and aromatics -
General methods of preparation of alkenes - Chemical properties - Uses - Elimination
mechanisms (E1,E2,E1cB) - Electrophilic, Free radical additions - Ziegler - Natta
Catalytic polymerization of ethylene - polymers of alkene derivatives.
Nomenclature General methods of preparation of alkynes - Physical properties -
Chemical properties - Uses - Types of alkadienes - General methods of preparation of
Dienes - Physical properties - Chemical properties - Uses - Mechanisms of electrophilic
and Free radical addition reactions - Polymers - Rubber as a natural polymer - Types of
polymerization reactions - Mechanisms of lonic and Free radical polymerization
reactions - Chemistry of Vulcanization of rubber - Chemistry of manufacture of Film
sheets, Rayon and Polycyclic fibres - Uses of Polymers.
Unit 4: CHEMISTRY OF BENZENE AND OTHER BENZENOID
General methods of preparation of benzene - Chemical properties - Uses - Electrophillic
substitution mechanism - Orientation and reactivity in substituted benzenes. Types of
Polynuclear Aromatic compounds - Nomenclature - Naphthalene from coal tar and
petroleum - Laboratory preparation Structure of Naphthalene - Aromatic character -
Physical properties - Chemical properties - Uses - Mechanism of Aromatic electrophilic
substitution - Theory of orientation and reactivity - Anthracene, Phenanthrene from tar
and petroleum - Laboratory preparation- Molecular Orbital structures - Aromatic
Characters - Physical Properties - Chemical properties - Uses - Preparation of biphenyls
- Physical and Chemical properties - Uses.
Unit 5: GASEOUS STATE
Maxwell's distribution of Molecular velocities (Derivation not required). Types of
Molecular velocities - Mean, Most probable and root mean square velocities. Graphical
representation and its significance - Collision diameter, Mean free path and collision
number - Transport properties - Thermal conductivity, Viscosity and Diffusion - Law of
equipartition of energies - Degree of freedom. Molecular basis of Heat capacity - Real
gases - vander. Waals equation of states - derivation - significance of critical constants -
Virial equations of state - Law of corresponding states - Compressibility factor.
CORE COURSE IV - GENERAL CHEMISTRY III
Unit I: Chemistry of p-Block Elements - B,C and N Families
General characteristics of p-block elements - general characteristics of elements of
Group III A-diagonal relationship between B and Si-extraction of boron - Physical and
chemical properties of B- uses - chemistry of some compounds of boron: Boric acid,
Borax, Diborane, Boron nitride - Extraction of Al - physical and chemical properties -
uses - chemistry of some compounds of Al: Al2O3, AICI3, Alums - Alloys of aluminum.
General characteristics of elements of Group IVA - difference of carbon and silicon form
the rest of the family- allotropic forms of carbon - Chemistry of charcoal - Chemistry of
oxides of carbon (CO & CO2) - use of CO2 in fire extinguishers - fuel gases -
preparation of silicon - physical and chemical properties of Si - uses - oxides of silicon -
structures of silicates - chemistry of silicones - manufacture of glass - type of glasses -
extraction of lead - physical and chemical properties - uses - lead pigments.
General characteristics of elements of V A Group - the unique features of nitrogen from
the rest of the family - preparation of nitrogen - physical and chemical properties of N2 -
uses - industrial preparation of ammonia - physical and chemical properties - uses -
chemistry of some compounds of nitrogen: Hydrazine, Hydroxylamine, Hydrazoic acid,
Nitric acid - nitrogen cycle - artificial fixation of nitrogen - preparation of phosphorous
- physical and chemical properties - uses - chemistry of PH3, PCI3, PCI5, POCI3, P2O5
and oxyacids of phosphorus - fertilizers.
Unit 2: Chemistry of p-Block elements - O,X and Noble Gas Families
Anomalous behaviour of oxygen - paramagnetic nature of oxygen, Preparation,
properties, structure and uses of oxyacids of sulphur, classification of oxides based on
their chemical behaviour - acidic oxide, amphoteric oxide and neutral oxides.
Classification of oxides based on oxygen content - normal oxides, peroxides, super
oxides, dioxides, sub oxides and mixed oxides. Chemistry of selenium and tellurium.
General characteristics of halogen with reference of electro negativity, electron affinity,
oxidation states and oxidizing power. Peculiarities of fluorine, Hydrides, oxides and oxo
acids of halogens. Inter halogen compounds and pseudo halogens - basic nature of
Noble gases : Position in the periodic table - isolation from atmosphere - General
characteristics - structure and shape of xenon compounds - XeF4, SeF6, XeO3 and XeOF4
- uses of noble gases
Unit 3: Organohalogen Compounds
Nomenclature - general methods of preparation of haloalkanes - physical and chemical
properties - uses - nucleophillic substitution mechanisms (SN1, SN2 and SN3) - evidences
- stereochemical aspects of nucleophillic substitution mechanisms - general methods of
preparation of halobenzenes - physical properties - chemical properties - uses
mechanisms of electrophillic and nucleophillic substitution reactions - theory of
orientation and reactivity.
Unit IV: Stereochemistry
Stereoisomerism - types - optical isomerism - chirality's based on symmetry elements
(Cn, 5, i and Sn) - idea of asymmetry and dissymmetry - optical activity - measurement
of optical activity - concept of enantiomerism, diastereomerism - axial chirality in
substituted allenes and spiranes - atropisomerism in substituted biphenyls - R,S and D, L
notations to express configurations - erythro, thero conventions - meso and dl - forms of
tartaric acid - stereoselectivity and stereospecificity in organic reactions with suitable
examples - resolution of racemic mixture using chiral reagent - Walden inversion -
asymmetric synthesis - asymmetric induction.
Unit V - Solidstates, Liquid Crystals and Colloids
Classification of solids - Isotropic and anisotropic crystals. Laws of crystallography -
representation of planses - Miller indices, space lattice, crystal systems - seven primitive,
unit cells - X - ray diffraction - derivation of Bragg's equation - determination of
structure of NaCl by Debye Scherrer (powder method) and rotating crystal method -
determination of Avogadro's number - discussion of structure of KCl & CsCl - defects
in crystals - stoichiometric and non stoichiometric - methods of growing crystals - from
melt and from solution (hydrothermal method, Gel method - packing of ions in crystals
- radius ration rules and its limitations. Liquid crystals - types, theories and applications.
Definitions - types of colloids - sols - preparation, purification and properties - Kinetic,
Optical and electrical stability of colloids, gold number, associated colloids, Emulsion -
types of emulsions, preparation, properties and application, Gels - types of gels,
preparation, properties and applications. Donnan membrance equilibrium -osmosis,
reverse osmosis, dialysis and desalination - macromolecules - molecular weight of
macro - molecules - determination of molecular weight by osmotic pressure method and
light scattering methods.
Core Course V - Practical II-Semimicro Analysis
Semimicro Inorganic Qualitative analysis
Analysis of a mixture containing two cations and two anions of which one will be an
interferring ion. Semimicro methods using the conventional scheme with hydrogen
sulphide may be adopted.
Cations to be Studies: lead, copper, bismuth, cadmium, antimony, tin, iron, aluminium,
zinc, manganese, cobalt, nickel, barium, calcium, strontium, magnesium and ammonium
Anions to be studies: Carbonate, Sulphide, Sulphate, nitrate, chloride, bromide,
fluoride, borate, oxalate, arsenite, arsenate and phosphate
NON MAJOR ELECTIVE - I-AGRICULTURAL CHEMISTRY
UNIT - I : ORIGIN OF SOIL
Origin of soils, their properties, acid, alkali and saline soils- diagnosis - remediation of
acid and salt affected soils - methods of reclamation and after care.
UNIT - II : CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF SOIL
Soil testing - concept, objectives and basis - soil sampling, tooks, collection processing,
despatch of soil samples - soil organic matter - its decomposition and effect on soil
UNIT - III : PLANT NUTRIENTS
Plant nutrients - macro and micro nutrients - their role in plant growth - sources - forms
of nutrient absorbed by plants - factors affecting nutrient absorption - deficiency
symptoms in plants - corrective measures - chemicals used for correcting nutritional
deficiencies - nutrient requirement of crops - their availability fixation and release of
UNIT - IV FERTILIZERS
Fertilizers - classification of NPK fertilizers - sources - natural and synthetic - straight -
complex - liquid fertilizers, their properties, use and relative efficiency secondary and
micronutrient fertilizers - mixed fertilizers.
UNIT - V : PESTICIDES AND FUNGICIDES :
Pesticides : definition - Classification - organic and inorganic pesticides - mechanism of
action - charecteristics safe handling of pesticides - impact of pesticides on soil, plants
Fungicides : Definition - Classification - mechanism of action - sulphur, copper,
mercury compounds, dithanes, dithiocarbamate.
CORE COURSE VI - GENERAL CHEMISTRY IV
Unit I: Metallurgy and d-Block elements
Occurrence of metals - concentration of ores - froth floatation, magnetic separation,
calcinations, roasting, smelting, flux, aluminothermic process - purification of metals -
electrolysis, zone refining, van Arkel de Boer methods - chemistry of transition elements
- electronic configuration - general periodic trend - group study of titanium, vanadium,
chromium, manganese and iron group's coinage metals - comparative study and
chemistry of photography - comparative study of zinc group metals - galvanization,
evidences for the existence of mercurous ion as Hg z
Unit II: Chemistry of f- Block Elements
General characteristics of f-block elements - comparative account of lanthanides and
actinides - occurrence, oxidation states, magnetic properties, colour and spectra -
lanthanides and actinides - separation by ion exchange and solvent extraction methods -
lanthanide contraction - chemistry of thorium and uranium - occurrence, ores, extraction
and uses - preparation, properties and uses of ceric ammonium sulphate, thorium dioxide,
thorium nitrate, uranium hexafluoride, uranylacetate
Unit III: Chemistry of Organometallic compounds
Introduction - preparation of organo magnesium compounds - physical and chemical
properties - uses - preparation of ogranozinc compounds - physical and chemical
properties - uses preparation of organolithium compounds - physical and chemical
properties - uses chemistry of organo copper, organolead, organophosphorus and organo
Unit IV: Chemistry of Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Nomenclature - laboratory preparation of alcohols - industrial source of alcohols -
physical properties - chemical properties - uses - chemistry of glycols and glycerols -
uses - preparation of phenols including di and tri hydric phenols - physical and chemical
properties - uses - aromatic elctrophilic substitution mechanism - theory of orientation
and reactivity, laboratory preparation of ethers, epoxides - physical properties - chemical
properties - uses - introduction to crown ethers - structures - applications
Unit V: Chemical Kinetics and Catalysis
Rate of reaction, average and instantaneous rates, rate equation, order of reaction. Rate
laws: rate constants - derivation of rate constants and characteristics for zero, first order,
second and third order (equal initial concentration) - derivation of time for half change
with examples. Methods of determination of order of reactions - experimental methods
of determination of rate constant of a reaction - volumetry, manometry, polarimetry,
Mechanism of complex reactions - equilibrium and steady state approximations.
Effect of temperature on reaction rate - concept of activation energy, energy barrier
Arrbenius equation. Theories of reaction rates - collision theory - derivation of rate
constant of bimolecular gases reaction - failure of collision theory - Lindemann's theory
of unimolecular reaction. Theory of absolete reaction rates - derivation of rate for a
bimolecular reaction - significance of entropy and free energy of activation. Comparison
of collision theory and ARRT. Kinetics of fast reaction - flow methods and pulse
Catalysis - homogeneous and heterogeneous - homogeneous catalysis - kinetic of acid -
base and enzyme catalysis. Heterogeneous catalysis - adsorption - types - chemical and
physical. Characteristics of adsorption. Different types of isotherms - Freundlich and
NON MAJOR ELECTIVE - II-CHEMISTRY OF CONSUMER PRODUCTS
UNIT - I SOAPS AND DETERGENTS :-
Manufacture of soaps, formulation of toilet soaps - different ingradients used- Soft
soaps, shaving soaps and creams. Anionc detergents - manufacture and applications -
cationic detergents - manufacture and applications.
UNIT - II : COSMETICS
Shampoos - different kinds of shampoos - anti - dandruff, anti - lice, herbal and baby
shampoos hair dye - manufacture of conditioners - skin preparation - skin powder, nail
UNIT III : PAINTS AND VARNISHES :-
Constivents and their functin - types and applications.
UNIT IV : DYES
Classification - preparation and uses of alizarin, Indigo, Methul orange, Phenolphthalein
and Malachite green.
UNIT - V : Plastics - Resins and Rubber
Synthetic resins and plastics, synthetic polymers - important basic plastics and uses -
Core Course VII : Inorganic Chemistry I
UNIT 1: COORDINATION CHEMISTRY I :
Types of ligands - IUPAC nomenclature - Isomerism - theories of coordination
compounds - Werner, Sidgewick, valence bond, crystal field and molecular orbital
UNIT 2: COORDINATION CHEMISTRY II :
Stability of complexes - factors affecting the stability of complexes -
unimolecular and bimolecular nucleophilic substitution reactions in octahedral and square
planar complexes - trans effect - magnetic properties of transition metal complexes -
elementary idea of electronic spectra of transition metal complexes.
UNIT 3: APPLICATION OF COORDINATION COMPOUNDS :
Application of coordination compounds - estimation of nickel using DMG and
aluminium using oxine - estimation of hardness of water using EDTA - biologically
important coordination compounds - chlorophyll, haemoglobin, vitamin B12 - Their
structure and application - metal carbonyls - mono and poly nuclear carbonyles of Ni, Fe,
Cr, Co and Mn - synthesis and structure - nitrosyl compounds - classification, preparation
and properties - structure of nitrosyl chloride and sodium nitroprusside.
UNIT 4: METALLIC BONDING :
Metallic state - packing of atoms in metal (BCC, FCC, HCP and Simple cube) - theories
of metallic bonding - electron gas, Pauling and band theories - semi conductors - n-type
and p-type, transistors - uses - structure of alloys - substitutional and interstitial solid
solutions - Hume Rothery ratio.
UNIT 5: SOME SPECIAL TYPE OF COMPOUNDS :
Organo metallic compounds of alkenes, alkynes and cyclopenta diene - binary
compounds - hydrides, borides, carbides and nitrides - classification, preparation,
properties and uses.
some special classes of compounds - clathrates - examples and structures - Interstitial and
non - stoichiometric compounds - silicones - composition, manufacture, structure
properties and uses - silanes and their polymers - applications of phosphozenes and
phosphazenes - silicates and their polymers - classification into discrete anions - one,
two and three dimensional structures with examples - composition, properties and uses of
beryl, asbestos, tale, mica, zeolites and ultramarines.
Core Course VIII : Organic Chemistry I
UNIT 1: CHEMISTRY OF CARBONYL COMPOUNDS :
Introduction - nomenclature - laboratory preparation of aliphatic carbonyl compounds -
physical properties - chemical properties - uses - molecular orbital picture of carbonyl
group - nucleophilic addition mechanism at carbonyl group - acidity of alpha - hydrogen -
general methods of preparation of aromatic carbonyl compounds - physical and chemical
properties - uses - effect of aryl group on the reactivity of carbonyl group.
UNIT 2: CHEMISTRY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS :
Nomenclature - general methods of preparation of carboxylic acids - physical properties -
structure and acidity - Hammett equation - chemical properties - uses - preparation of
dicarboxylic acid - physical and chemical properties - uses - Introduction to derivatives
of carboxylic acids - physical and chemical properties - uses - Intruduction to derivatives
of carboxylic acids - nucleophilic substitution mechanism at acyl carbon - preparation,
physical and chemical properties of the compound: acyl chlorides, anhydrides, esters,
amides - chemistry of compounds containing active methylene group - Introduction to
oils and fats - fatty acids - manufacture of soap - mechanism of cleaning action of soap.
UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY OFNITROGEN COMPOUNDS :
Nitrogen compounds - nomenclature - nitro alkanes - alkyl nitrites - differences -
aromatic nitro compounds - preparation and reduction of nitro benzene under different
conditions. Amino compounds - effect of substitutents on basicity, reaction of amino
compounds (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary amine compounds). mechanism
of carbylamine reaction, diazotization, and comparison of aliphatic and aromatic amines
- diazonium compounds - preparation and synthetic importance of diazomethane,
benzene diazonium chloride and diazo acetic ester.
UNIT 4: CHEMISTRY OF HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS :
Heterocyclic compounds - nomenclature - preparation and properties of furan, pyrrole,
thiophen -comparison of the basicities of pyrrole, pyridine and piperidine with amines -
synthesis and reactions of quinoline, isoquinoline and indole with special reference to
Skraup, Fischer Napieraloki and Ficher - indole syntheses - structural elucidation of
quinoline and isoquinoline.
UNIT 5: INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY :
Dyes - theory of color and constitution - chromophore, auxochrome, classification
according to application and structure - preparation and uses of nitro dyes - naphthol
yellow, nitroso fast green O, azo dyes - methyl orange, triphenyl methane dyes -
malachite green, indigo dyes - Indigotin, anthraquinone dyes - alizarin, phthalein dyes -
fluorescein - sulphonic acid and derivatives - preparation and properties of benzene
sulphonic acid - saccharin, chloramines - T , sulphonamides.
Polymers-definition-types of polymers-mechanism of cationic, anionic and
free radical polymerisation -thermo setting polymers - preparation of
Nylon 66, polyester, epoxide resin- molecular weight of polymers (
elementary treatment )
Core Course IX : Physical Chemistry I
UNIT 1: TERMODYNAMICS I :
System and surrounding - isolated, closed and open systems - state of the system -
Intensive and extensive variables. Thermodynamic processes - reversible and
irreversible, isothermal and adiabatic processes - state and path functions - exact and
inexact differentials. work of expansion at constant pressure and free expansion.
First law of thermodynamics - statement - definition of internal energy (E), enthalpy (H)
and heat capactiiy. Relation between Cp and Cv. calculation of w, q, dE and dH for
expansion of ideal and real gases under isothermal and adiabatic conditions of reversible
and irreversible processes. Definition of joule - thomson coefficient (µJ.J) - calculation of
(µ.J.J) for ideal and real gases - Inversion temperature.
Thermochemistry - relation between enthalpy of reaction at constant volume (qv) and at
constant pressure (qp) - temperature dependence of heat of reaction - Kirchoffs equation -
bond energy and its calculation from thermochemical data - Integral and differential heats
of solution and dilution.
UNIT 2: THERMODYNAMICS II
Second law of thermo dynamics - need for the law - different statements of the law -
Carnot's cycle and efficiency of heat engine - Carnot's theorem - thermodynamic scale of
temperature - concept of entropy - definition and physical significance of entropy -
entropy as a function of P, V and T - entropy changes during phase changes - entropy of
mixing - entropy criterion for spontaneous and equilibrium processes in isolated system -
Gibb's free energy (G) and Helmholtz free energy (A) - variation of A and G with P, V
and T- Gibb's - Helmholtz equation and its applications - thermodynamic equation of
state - Maxwell's relations - \u0002A and \u0002G as criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium -
advantage of \u0002G over entropy change.
UNIT 3: THERMODYNAMICS III
Equilibrium constant and free energy change - thermodynamic derivation of law of mass
action - equilibrium constants in terms of pressure and concentration - NH3, PCl5,
CaCO3 - thermodynamic interpretation of Lechatelier's principle (Concentration,
temperature, pressure and addition of inert gases.) systems variable composition - partial
molar quantities - chemical potential - variation of chemical potential with T, P and X
(mole fraction ) - Gibb's Duhem equation. van't Hoff's reaction isotherm - van't Hoff's
isochore - Clapeyron equation and Clausius -
Clapeyron equation-applications-third law of thermodynamics -Nernst heat theorem-
statement of III law and concept of residual entropy - evaluation of absolute entropy from
heat capacity data. Exception to III law (ortho and para hydrogen, CO, N2O and ice).
UNIT 4: SOLUTIONS
Ideal and non-ideal soultions, methods of expressing concentrations of solutions - mass
percentage, volume percentage, normality, molarity, molality, mole fraction. concept of
activity and activity coefficients - completely miscible liquid systems - benzene and
toluene. Raoult's law and Henry's law. deviation from Raoult's law and Henry's law.
Duhem - Margules equation, theory of fractional distillation. azeotropes - HCl - water
and ethanol - water systems - partially miscibe liquid systems - phenol - water,
triethanolamine - water and nicotine - water systems. lower and upper CSTs - effect of
impunities on CST - completely immiscible liquids - principle and applications of steam
distillation. Nernst distribution law - derivation.
applications -determination of formula of a complex ( KI + I2 = KI3 ).solvent extractionprinciple
and derivation of a general formula of the amount unextracted - dilute solutions:
colligative properties, relative lowering of vapour pressure, osmosis, law of osmotic
pressure, thermodynamic derivation of elevation of boiling point and depression in
freezing point. determination of molecular masses using the above properties. abnormal
molecular masses, molecular dissociation - degree of dissociation - molecular association.
UNIT 5: THERMODYNAMICS OF PHASE CHANGES
Definition of terms in the phase rule - derivation and application to one component
systems - water and sulphur - super cooling, sublimation. two component systems - solid
liquid equilibria, simple eutectic (lead-silver, Bi-Cd), desilverisation of lead - compound
formation with congruent melting point. (Mg-Zn) and incongruent melting point (Na-K).
solid solutions - (Ag-Au) - fractional crystallisation. freezing mixtures - FeCl3 - H2O
systems, CuSO4-H2O system.
CORE COURSE X- PRACTICAL -III -PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY PRACTICALS
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS :
1. Critical Solution Temperature
2. Effect of impurity on Critical solution Temperature
3. Transition Temperature
4. Rast Method
5. Phase Diagram (Simple eutectic system)
6. Kinetics of Ester Hydrolysis
7. Partition Co-efficient of iodine between water and carbon tetrachloride.
8. Conductometric Acid-Base Titration
9. Potentiometic Redox Titration
10. Determination of cell constant
Core Course XI - PRACTICAL IV
(GRAVIMETRIC & ORGANIC ANALYSIS)
GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS :
1. Estimation of Lead as lead chromate.
2. Estimation of Barium as barium chromate.
3. Estimation of Nickel as Nickel - DMG complex.
4. Estimation of Copper as copper (I) thiocyanate
5. Estimation of Magnesium as magnesium oxinate
6. Estimation Calcium as calcium oxalate monohydrate
7. Estimation of Barium as barium sulphate.
8. Estimation of Iron as Iron (III) oxide.
Organic Qualitative Analysis and Organic Preparation :
Analasis of Simple Organic compounds (a) characterization of functional groups (b)
confirmation by preparation of solid dervatives / characteristic colour reactions.
Note : Mono -functional compounds are given for analysis. Incase of bi-functional
compounds, students are required to report any one of the functional groups.
ORGANIC PREPARATION :
Preparation of Organic Compounds involving the following chemical conversions
1. Oxidation 2. Reduction 3. Hydrolysis 4. Nitration 5. Bromination 6. Diazotization
7. Osazone formation
DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL CONSTANTS
Determination of boiling /melting points by semimicro method.
Major Based Elective I : Analytical Chemistry
UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION TO ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY
Types of analytical methods : Importance of analytical methods in qualitative and
quantitative analysis : chemical and instrumental methods - advantages and limitations of
chemical and instrumental methods.
Laboratory Hygiene and safety : Storage and handling of corrosive, flammable,
explosive, toxic, carcinogenic and poisonous chemicals.
Simple first aid procedures for accidents involving acids, alkalies, bromine, burns and cut
by glass. Threshold vapour concentration - safe limits. Waste disposal and fee me
Evaluation of analytical data : Idea of significant figures - its importance. Accuracy -
methods of expressing accuracy . error analysis -types of errors-minimizing errors.
precision-methods of expressing precision - mean, median, mean deviation, standard
deviation and confidence limit. Method of least squares - problems involving straight
UNIT 2: QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS :
Estimations of commercial samples - determination of percentage purity of samples -
pyrolusite, Iron ore, washing soda and Bleaching power - estimation of glucose and
gravimetric analysis - principle - theories of precipitation - solubility product and
precipitation -conditions of precipitations-types of precipitants-specific and selective
precipitants- organic and inorganic precipitants - types of precipitation - purity of
precipitates - co precipitation - post precipitation - precipitation from homogeneous
solution - use of sequestering agents
UNIT 3: THERMO AND ELECTRO ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Thermo analytical methods : Principle of thermo gravimetry, differential thermal
analysis, differential scanning calorimetry - Instrumentation for TGA, DTA and DSC -
Characteristics of TGA and DTA curves - factors affecting TGA and DTA curves.
applications - TGA of calcium oxalate monohydrate DTA of calcium acetate
monohydrate - determination of purity of pharmaceuticals by DSC.
Electro analytical techniques - electro gravimetry -theory of electro gravimetric analysis -
determination of copper (by constant current procedure) - electrolytic separation of
metals : Principle - separation of copper and nickel, coulometry : principle of
coulometric analysis - coulometry at controlled potential - apparatus and technique -
separation of nickel and cobalt.
UNIT 4: SPECTRO ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES
Colorimetry and spectrophotometry - Beer - Lambert's law - principle of colorimetric
analysis - visual colorimetry - standard series method - balancing method -estimation of
NI+2 and Fe+3 colorimetrically - photoelectric photometer method - spectro photometric
determination of chromium and manganese in alloy steel. infra red spectroscopy
(Instrumentation only)-block diagram- source-monochromator-cell-detectors and
recorders-sampling techniques-NMR spectroscopy(instrumentation only)
UNIT 5: CHROMATOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES
Column chromatography - principle, types of adsorbents, preparation of the column,
elution, recovery of substances and applications. thin layer chromatography - principle,
choice of adsorbent and solvent, preparation of chromatoplates, Rf-values, factors
affecting the Rf-values, Significance of Rf-values. Paper chromatography - principle,
solvents used, development of chromatogram, ascending, descending and radial paper
chromatography. paper electrophoresis - separation of amino acids and other
applications. Ion - exchange chromatography - principle - types of resins -requirements
of a good resin -action of resins - experimental techniques - separation of Na-K, Ca-Mg,
Co-Ni and chloride - bromide mixture. analysis of milk and apple juice - gas
chromatography - principle - experimental techniques - instrumentation and applications.
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)-principle -experimental techniques -
instrumentation and advantages.
Core Course XII : Organic Chemistry II
UNIT 1: CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES :
Carbohydrate - classification, properties of mono saccharide (glucose and fructose),
structure and configuration of mono saccharide, interconversion, ascending and
descending series, muta rotation, epimerisation- cyclic structure - determination of size of
sugar rings - disaccharide - sucrose, maltose - structure elucidation - polysaccharide -
starch and cellulose (elementary treatment).
UNIT 2: CHEMISTRY OF PROTEINS AND VITAMINS
Amino acids - classification, general methods of preparation and reactions of amino
acids, zwitter ion - isoelectric points, action of heat on Α,Β and Γ amino acids. Peptides
and proteins - Peptide linkage - polypeptide - classification of proteins - synthesis of
peptides - Merrifield synthesis - primary structure - end group analysis - Dangyl chloride,
Edman method - secondary structure - tertiary structure - denaturation - colour reactions
of proteins - nucleic acids - elementary treatment of DNA and RNA . vitamins (structural
elucidation not needed) - classification, biological importance of vitamins A, B1, B2, B6,
B12 and C.
UNIT 3: CHEMISTRY OF ALKALOIDS AND TERENOIDS
Chemistry of natural products - alkaloids - isolation, classification, general methods of
elucidating structure - structural elucidation and synthesis of coniine, piperine, nicotine
and ephedrine. terpenes - classification - isoprene, special isoprene rule, general methods
of structural elucidation - structural elucidation and synthesis of citral, limonene,
UNIT 4: MOLECULAR REARRANGEMENTS
Molecular rearrangements - types of rearrangement (nucleophilic and electrophilic) -
mechanism with evidence for the following re-arrangements : pinacol - pinacolone,
benzil - benzilic acid, benzidine, Claisen, Fries, Hofmann, Curtius, Lossen, Beckmann,
dienone - phenol and Orton - photochemical reactions of ketones - Norrish type I and II.
UNIT 5: ORGANIC SPECTROSCOPY
UV - VIS spectroscopy - types of electronic transitions - solvent effects on Λ max -
Woodward - Fieser rules - calculation of Λmax : dienes and Α, Β unsaturated carbonyls.
IR spectroscopy - number and types of fundamental vibrations - modes of
vibrations and their energies, position of IR absorption frequencies for
functional groups like aldehyde, ketone, alcohol, acid and amide- factors
affecting the frequency absorption - conjugation, inductive effect and
NMR spectroscopy - principle - equivalent and non equivalent protons - shielded
and deshielded protons, anisotropy, chemical shift - TMS, tau and delta scales, integral,
splitting of signals - spin -spin coupling, NMR spectrum of EtOH, n - propyl bromide and
Core Course XIII : PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY II
UNIT 1: ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE :
Electrical transport and conducatnce in metal and in electrolytic solution.-
specific conductance and equivalent conductance. measurement of
equivalent conductance. using Kohlraush's bridge. Arrhenius theory of
electrolytic dissociation and its limitation. weak and strong electrolyte
according to Arrhenius theory. Ostwald's dilution law - applications and
limitation. variation of equivalent conductance with concentration-
migration of ion- ionic mobility. Kohlrausch's law and its applications. The
elementary treatment of the Debye - Huckel- Onsager equation for strong
electrolytes. evidence for ionic atmosphere. The conductance at high fields
(Wein effect) and high frequencies (Debye - Falkenhagen effect). Transport
number & Hittorfs rule. determination by Hittorf's method and moving
boundary method application of conductance measurements - determination
of strong electrolytes and acids. Determination of Ka of acids.
determination of solubility product of a sparingly soluble salt. common ion
effect. conductometric titrations.
UNIT 2: ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS
Electrolytic & galvanic cells - reversible and irreversible cells. conventional
representation of electrochemical cells. Electromotive force of a cell and its
measurement- computation of E.M.F- calculation of thermodynamic quantities of cell
reactions (\u0002G. \u0002H, \u0002S and K)- application of Gibbs Helmholtz equation. concentration
and E.M.F- Nernst equation,
Types of reversible electrodes - gas/metal ion - metal/metal ion; metal/insoluble
salt/ anion and redox electrodes. electrode reactions - Nernst equation - derivation of
cell. E.M.F and single electrode potential- standard hydrogen electrode - reference
electrodes - standard electrode potentials - sign convention - electrochemical series and
concentration cell with and without transport- liquid junction potential. application of
EMF of concentration cells. Valency of ion- solubility product and activity co-efficient.
Potentiometric titrations. Determination of pH using hydrogen and quinhydrone
electrodes- determination of pKa of acids by potentiometric method. Corrosion - general
and electrochemical theory - passivity - prevention of corrosion.
UNIT 3: PHOTO CHEMISTRY AND GROUP THEORY
Consequences of light absorption - Jablonski diagram- radiative and non - radiative
transitions. laws of photo chemistry - Lambert - Beer, Grothus - Draper and Stark -
Einstein. quantum efficiency. photo chemical reactions - rate law - kinetics of
H2-Cl2, H2-Br2 and H2-I2 reactions. comparison between thermal and photochemical
reactions. photo sensitization and quenching. Fluorescence, phosphorescence and
chemiluminescence. Laser and uses of lasers - population inversion and optical pumping.
Group theory: symmetry elements and symmetry operation-group postulates and types of
groups-Abelian and non Abelian- symmetry operation of H2O molecule-illustration of
group postulates using symmetry operations of H2O molecule-construction of
multiplication table for the operation of H2O molecule-point group-definition -elements
(symmetry operations) of the following point groups: Cn (C2, C3)
Sn (S1, S2) , C1V ( C2V, C3V ) and C2R . group theory and optical activity
UNIT 4: SPECTROSCOPY I
Electromagnetic spectrum - The regions of various types of spectra. Microwave
spectroscopy: Rotational spectra of diatomic molecules treated as rigid rotator, condition
for a molecule to be active in microwave region, rotational constants (B), and selection
rules for rotational transition. Frequency of spectral lines, calculation of inter - nuclear
distance in diatomic molecules.
Infrared spectroscopy : Vibrations of diatomic molecules - harmonic and anharmonic
oscillators, zero point energy, dissociation energy and force constant, condition for
molecule to be active in the IR region, selection rules for vibrational transition,
fundamental bands, overtones and hot bands, diatomic vibrating rotator - P,Q,R
branches. Determination of force constant. UV visible spectroscopy : conditions - theory
of electronic spectroscopy - types of electronic transitions - Franck - Condon principle -
pre dissociation - applications.
UNIT 5: SPECTROSCOPY II
Raman spectroscopy : Rayleigh scattering and Raman scattering. Stokes and antistokes
lines in Raman spectra, Raman frequency, quantum theory of Raman effect, condition for
a molecule to be Raman active. comparison of Raman and IR spectra- structural
determination from Raman and IR spectroscopy, rule of mutual exclusion.
NMR spectroscopy : Nuclear spin and conditions for a molecule to give rise to NMR
spectrum- theory of NMR spectra, number of NMR signals, equivalent and non -
equivalent protons, position of NMR signals, shielding, de-shielding, chemical shift,
Δ and Τ scales. Peak area and number of protons. Splitting of NMR signals - spin - spin
Major Based Elective II : Nuclear and Industrial Chemistry
UNIT 1: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY I
Introduction - composition of nucleus and nuclear forces (meson field theory)- nuclear
stability - mass defect - binding energy - packing fraction - N/P ratio, magic numbers -
nuclear models - liquid drop - shell and collective model - Isotopes - detection and
separation - deviation of atomic weights from whole numbers - isobars isotones and
UNIT 2: NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY II
Radioactivity - discovery, detection and measurements, laws of radioactivity - rate of
disintegration - half life and average life, group displacement law - radio active series -
nuclear transformation - use of projectiles - nuclear reactions - fission and fusion -
nuclear reactors, applications of nuclear science in agriculture and medicine- carbon
dating - rock dating - radioactive waste disposal.
UNIT 3: INORGANIC SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY
Radius ratio rule its application in determination of structure of solids like Zones,
Wurzite, fluorite, anti-fluorite, CdI2 and NiH2 - crystal defects - Schotty and Frenkel
defects- group theories and its applications - symmetry elements - symmetry operations -
mathematical group multiplication tables - point group of simple molecules (H2, HCl,
CO2, H2O, BF3, NH3)
UNIT 4: INDUSTRIAL INORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Fossil fuels - varieties of coal and petroleum - petroleum refineries in India- fuel gases -
calorific value - composition and preparation of water gas, semi water gas, carburetted
water gas, producer gas, natural gas, LPG and biogas.
Fertilizers - manufacture of N-P-K and mixed fertilizers - micronutrients and their role in
plant life- safety matches, fire works and explosives - manufacturing details paints and
varnishes - manufacture and uses.
UNIT 5: ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTORY
Soil, water and air pollution - control measures - ozone hole - green house effect - acid
rain - global warming. effluents and their treatment from various industries like dyeing,
cement, tannery and distillery units.
Major based Elective III
Any one of the following courses :
1. Polymer Chemistry
2. Food Chemistry
3. Metirial Chemistry and Nano Technolagy
1. Polymer Chemistry
UNIT 1 : INTRODUCTION TO POLYMERS :
Importance of polymers : basic concept-monomers and polymers-definition.
Classification of polymers on the basis of microstructures, macrostructures and
applications (thermosetting and thermoplastics) Distinction among plastics, elastomers
and fibers. Homo and heteropolymers. Copolymers.
Chemistry of polymerization- chain polymerization, free radical, ionic, coordination step
Polyaddition and polycondensation- miscellaneous ring-opening & group transfer
UNIT 2 : PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND REACTIONS OF POLYMERS
Properties : Glass transition temperature (Tg) - Definition - Factors affecting Tgrelationships
between Tg and molecular weight and melting point. Importance of Tg.
Molecular weight of polymers: number average, weight average, sedimentation and
viscosity average molecular weights. Molecular weights and degree of polymerization.
Reactions : hydrolysis - hydrogenation - addition - substitutions-cross-liking
vulcanization and cyclisations reaction. Polymer degradation. Basic idea of thermal,
photo and oxidative degradation of polymers
UNIT 3 : POLYMERIZATION TECHNIQUES AND PROCESSING
Polymerisation techniques : Bulk, solution, suspension, emulsion, melt condensation and
interfacial polycondensation polymerizations. Polymer processing: Calendering -die
casting, rotational casting -compression. Injection moulding. (15Hrs)
UNIT 4 : CHEMISTRY OF COMMERCIAL POLYMERS
General methods of preparation, properties and uses of the following
Polymers: Teflon, polymethylmethacrylate. Polyethylene, polystyrene, PAN, polyesters,
polycarbonates, polyamides, (Kevlar), polyurethanes, PVC, epoxy resins, rubber -styrene
and neoprene rubbers, Phenol - formaldehydes and urea-formaldehyde resins (15Hrs)
UNIT 5 : ADVANCES IN POLYMERS
Biopolymers-biomaterials. Polymers in medical field. High temperature and fireresistant
polymers. Silicones. Conducting polymers-carbon Fibers. (basic idea only).
UNIT 1 : FOOD ADULTERATION :
Sources of food, types, advantages and disadvantages. Food adulteration - contamination
of Wheat, Rice, Alial, Milk, Butter etc. with clay stones, water and toxic chemicals -
Common adulterants. - ghee adulterants and their detection. Detection of adultered food
by simple analytic techniques.
UNIT 2 : FOOD POISON
Food poisons - natural poisons (alkaloids - nephrotoxing) - pesticides. (DDT, BHC,
Malathion) - Chemical poisons - first aid for poison consumed victims. (15Hrs)
UNIT 3 : FOOD ADDITIVES
Food additives -artificial sweetners - saccharin - cyclomate and aspartate. Food flavours
-esters, aldehydes and heterocyclic compound. Food colours - nestricte use spurious
colours - Emulsifying agents - preservatives learning agents. Baking powder yeast -
taste makers - MSG vinegar. (15Hrs)
UNIT 4 : BEVERAGES :
Beverages - Soft drinks - soda - fruit juices - alcoholic beverages examples.
Carbonation - addiction to alcohol - cirrhosis of liver and social problems.
UNIT 5: EDIBLE OILS :
Fats, Oils, - Sources of oils - production of refined vegetable oils -
preservation. Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - iodine value - role of
MUFA and PUFA in preventing heart diseases - determination of iodine
value and RM value, saponification values and their significance.
Estimation of iodine and RM values in edible oils.
UNIT 1: IONIC CONDUCTIVITY AND SOLID ELECTROLYTES :
Types of ionic crystals - alkali halides - silver chloride-alkali earth fluovider
-simple stoichiometric oxides. Types of ionic conductors - halide ion
conductors - oxide ion conductors - solid electrolytes - applications of solid
electrolytes. Electrochemical cell - principles - batteries, sensors and fuel
cells - crystal defects in solids - line and plane defects - point defects -
schottky and frenkel defects. Electronic properties and band theory; metals,
semiconductors - Inorganic solids - colour, magnetic and optical properties,
UNIT 2 : MAGNETIC MATERIALS
Introduction - types of magnetic materials - diamagnetism -
paramagnetism, ferromagnetism. Ferrites : Preparation and their
applications in microwave -floppy disk - magnetic bibble memory and
applications. Insulating Materials: Classification on the basis of temperature
- Blymer insulating materials and ceramic insulating materials. Ferro
electric materials: examples - applications of ferroelectries. (15h)
UNIT 3 : MODERN ENGINEERING MATERIALS :
Metallic glasses - introduction -composition, properties and applications.
Shape memory alloys: introduction - examples - application of SMA -
advantages and disadvantages. Biomaterials :
Introduction -metals and alloys in biomaterials -ceramic biomaterials,
composite biomaterials-polymer biomaterials. (15h)
UNIT 4: NANOPHASE MATERIALS :
Introduction - techniques for synthesis of nanophase materials -sol-gel
synthsis-electrodeposition -inert gas condensation-mechanical alloying -
properties of nanophase mateials -applications of nanophase materials,
composite materials: Introduction -types. (15h)
UNIT 5: NANO TECHNOLOGY
Introduction -importance -various stages of nanotechnology -nanotube
technology -nanoparticles -fullerenes-nanodendrimers -nanopore channels,
fibres and scaffolds - CVD dismond technology -FCVA technology and its
applications - nanoimaging techniques. (15h)
Books for Reference :
1. Aathony R. West,
Solidstate chemistry and its applications, john wiley & Sons(1989).
2. Raghavan V.R.,
Materials Science and Engineering, Printice Hall (India) Ltd., (2001).
3. Kenneth J. Klabunde,
Nanoscale materials in chemistry, A. John Wiley and Sons Inc. Publication.