The University of Burdwan
In Bardhaman

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Important information

  • Bachelor
  • Bardhaman
  • Duration:
    3 Years

Important information

Where and when

Starts Location
On request
The University of Burdwan, Rajbati, Bardhaman , 713104, West Bengal, India
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Course programme

Part I

Paper I
1. Atomic structure and chemical periodicity
2. Chemical forces and molecular structure
3. Coordination chemistry: preamble
Werner’s theory and new horizon, ligand and denticity, double salt and complex salt, ligand classification and ligational mode: classical and non-classical; σ-donor, (σ+π)-donor, σ-donor with π-acceptance and stabilisation of metal oxidation states; π-complexing and π-acidic; bridging (end-on and end-to-end) and chelating including trans-chelate, chelate effect; innermetallic and sequestering; flexidentate; innocent and non-innocent, macrocylic and organometallic ligand; Schiff-bases
IUPAC Nomenclature
4. Acids and bases
5. Redox processes

Paper II
1. Nomenclature (both trivial and IUPAC)
2. Tetracovalency of carbon, hybridisation of carbon- sp3, sp2, sp, formation of C-C, C=C, C=C, C-O, C=O bonds. Bond length, bond strength (bond energy and bond dissociation energy), bond angle and their variation in carbon compounds involving sp3, sp2and sp hybridised carbon atoms. Orbital pictures of methane, ethane, ethene, ethyne, allene. Shapes of molecules. (7 lectures)
3. Localised and delocalised bonds, inductive effect, field effect, electromeic effect, conjugation, resonance, hyperconjugation, steric assistance and steric inhibition of resonance. Tautomerism, aromaticity, Huckels rules, aromatic, nonaromatic and antiaromatic compounds, non- benzenoid aromatic compounds(application of Huckel’s rule). (8 lectures)
4. Polar and nonpolar character of carbon-carbon and carbon-heteroatom bonds. Qualitative idea of dipole moment and its application in aliphatic and aromatic compounds. Inter- and intra- molecular forces and their effects on physical and chemical properties of molecules. (6 lectures)
5. Homolysis and heterolysis of bonds: generation, structure and reactivity of carbocations (carbenium and carbonium ions), free radicals, carbenes, benzynes, ylides. Nonclassical carbocation. (7 lectures)
6. Organic reaction mechanism: (i) classification of reagents: nucleophiles, electrophiles, free radicals; regioselective and chemoselective reactions. Chemoselective reagents. (ii) thermodynamics and kinetics of organic reactions. Energy profiles — intermediates and transition states. Hammond postulate, principle of microscopic reversibility. Kinetically controlled and thermodynamically controlled reactions. (iii) Some methods of determination of organic reactions: study of intermediates, catalysis, nonkinetic, and kinetic studies with isotopes(primary and secondary kinetic isotope effects), kinetic and stereochemical studies. Crossover experiments. (iv) Free radical substitution reactions. SN1, SN2, SNi , SN1’ , SN2’ , SNi’ reactions. Neighbouring group participation in substitution reactions. (20 lectures)
7. Stereochemistry of carbon compounds: concept of constitution, configuration and conformation of organic molecules. Dihedral angle and angle of torsion-gauche, eclipsed and staggered arrangement. Synperiplanar, synclinal, anticlinal, antiperiplanar conformations. Conformation-energy diagram: ethane, propane and butane. Conformers of ethane, propane and butane. Stereochemical representation: Fischer, Newman, Sawhorse, Flying-wedge and their interconversions. Stereogenacity and chirality. Symmetry operations and Symmetry operators. Plane(σh, σv, σd), centre, simple and alternating axis of symmetry. Symmetry number. Cofigurational nomenclature: D/L, R/S, erythro/threo. Enantiomer, diastereomer, mesomer and racemic mixture. Optical activity and optical isomerism, optical rotation (specific & molecular rotation), optical purity (enantiomeric excess). Resolution of optical isomers. (12 lectures)
Paper III
1. Kinetic Theory
2. Principles of Thermodynamics
3. Thermodynamics of Chemical Equilibrium
Conditions of spontaneity and equilibrium. Degree of advancement and Le Chatelier principle; Van’t Hoff isotherm, isobar and isochore.
4. Reaction Kinetics I
5. Properties of Ionic Solutions I
6. The Boltzmann Distribution
Paper V
1. Coordination chemistry: synthesis and stereochemistry
2. Inorganic solids
3. Non-transition elements and their compounds
a) Group 1
Hydrogen and its isotopes, ortho- and para- hydrogens, atomic hydrogen, different bonding patterns of hydrogen, different types of hydrides
Alkali metals and their ions, chemical reactivity, solutions in liquid ammonia and other solvents, hydrides, halides, oxides, peroxides, superoxides, suboxides, hydroxides, oxoacids and their salts, complexes, crowns, crypts (5 lectures)
b) Group 2
Alkaline earths and their ions, chemical reactivity, halides, hydrides, oxides, hydroxides, oxoacid salts, complexes (aquo, oxo, fluoro, acetato, hydride, macrocycle) with special emphasis on beryllium, magnesium and calcium. (4 lectures)
c) Group 13
Borides, boranes, boron halides, boron oxides and oxoacids, borates, boron nitrides
Al, Ga, In, Tl : Properties of elements and their compounds, chemical trends, hydrides, halides, oxides, hydroxides, aluminates. (5 lectures)
d) Group 14
Different allotropic forms, carbides, hydrides, halides, oxohalides, oxides, chalgonides, freons, fullerenes, silicones, silane, silica, silicates (elementary idea, formulation from structure).
e) Group 15
Atomic and physical properties, halides (penta-, tri- and lower), hydrides, oxides, oxoacids with special reference to N and P; inertness of N2, nitrides, azides, nitrido compounds, liquid NH3 as a solvent, structure of molecular phosphorus, phosphides, phosphates, phosphonitrilic compounds; different N, P, As donor ligands and their complexes. (6 lectures)
f) Group 16
Atomic and physical properties, halides, oxohalides, hydrides, oxides, oxoacids, thioacids, molecular oxygen as ligand, ozone, hydrogen peroxide, peroxosulphates, allotropes of S and their structures (S6, S8, S10, S12, Sx,), polythionates, polysulphides, sulphur-nitrogen compounds (simple ones), SO2 as solvent. (6 lectures)
g) Group 17
Atomic and physical properties clatharates; pecularities of fluorine; hydrogen halides, HF as solvent, metal halides and interhalogen compounds, polyhalide anions, polyhalonium cations, oxides, oxoacids and their salts, pseudohalogen, basic properties of halogens and their coordination compounds. (7 lectures)
h) Group 18
Compounds of the elements: synthesis, structure, bonding (VB and VSEPR) and reactivity (hydrolysis and related reactions) of noble gas compounds; clatharates. (4 lectures)
Paper VI
1. Reaction mechanism:

2. Stereochemistry of carbon compounds

3. Synthesis, physical properties and reactions of following classes of compounds: (i) Alkanes, alkenes, alkadienes and alkynes. (ii)Aromatic hydrocarbons including polynuclear hydrocarbons naphthalene, anthracene and phenanthrene. (iii) alkyl and aryl halides, vinyl, allyl and benzyl halides. (iv) Hydroxy compounds: aliphatic and aromatic alcohols and phenols including polyhydroxy phenols. Ethers. (v) Aliphatic and aromatic carbonyl compounds (aldehydes & ketones), α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, quinones. (vi) Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids and their derivatives- esters, amides, acid halides and anhydrides. (vii) Phenolic acids. (viii) Aliphatic and aromatic nitrogen compounds: amino compounds, nitro compounds, nitroalkanes, alkyl nitriles, aromatic diazonium compounds, diazomethane. (ix) Nitro phenols, aminophenols, nitroanilines, amino carboxylic acids. (x) Sulphonic acids.
(28 lectures)
4. Some reactions which may be studied from their nature of reactivity under general mechanism of reactions or under appropriate class of compounds: Saytzev and Hofmann elimination reactions, Wittig reaction, Meerwein-Pondorf-Varley reduction, Aldol reaction including directed aldol reaction, Cannizzaro reaction, Reformatsky reaction, Mannich reaction, Darzen’s glycidic ester synthesis, Perkin reaction, Benzoin condensation , Claisen condensation, Stobbe reaction, Michael reaction, Dieckman reaction, Acyloin codensation, Pinacol-Pinacolone rearrangement, von Richter reaction, Friedel Crafts reaction, Haworth synthesis, Huben-hoesch reaction, Manasse reaction, Kolbe reaction, Reimer-Tiemann reaction.

Paper VII
1. Properties of Gases
2. Properties of Liquids
3. Properties of Solids
4. Thermodynamics of two-phase equilibrium and dilute solutions
5. Thermodynamics of general phase equilibrium
Paper IX
Group A
1. Coordination chemistry: bonding and stability, colour and magnetism
Nature of metal-ligand bond, valence bond approach and its limitation, crystal field theory and its basic platform, d-orbital splittings in coordination number 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, crystal field strength and factors affecting 10 Dq, CFSE and its calculation in different stereochemistries, weak field and strong field, low spin and high spin complexes, pairing energy, spin cross-over region
Origin of colour in coordination complexes: LS coupling scheme, Laporte selection rule, spin selection rule, d-d transition, charge transfer transition (MLCT, LMCT), prediction of structure, stereochemistry and bonding
Molecular magnetism : different types (dia-, para-, ferro- and antiferro-) of molecular magnets, orbital and spin magnetic moments and their derivations, orbital contribution to spin moment, super-exchange, prediction of valence and stereochemistry from magnetic moment (16 lectures)
2. Fundamentals of inorganic reaction mechanism
Introductory account, reaction profile, measurement of reaction rates, rate laws and mechanism, factors affecting rate laws and mechanism, substitution reaction in octahedral (CoIII) and square planar (PtII) complexes, cis effect and trans effect (elementary idea) (6 lectures)
3. Synthesis, structure (using IR results) and reactions of π-acid complexes:
i) carbonyl complexes: ν(CO) stretching frequency as diagnostic tool in the identification of ligational motifs (bridging, terminal) of carbon monoxide, π-acidity of CO, effect of coligands on ν(CO), basicity of bound CO, probing reactivity of bound CO
ii) nitrosyl complexes: ν(NO) as marker in proposing different oxidation state (NO+, NO, NO-) of free and bound nitrogen monoxide, linear and bent NO, reactivity of bound nitrogen monoxide — electrophilicity and nucleophilicity (8 lectures)
4. Transition elements and their compounds
Chemistry of the transition elements in Groups 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 is to be studied in the light of the principle enumerated in Paper I, items 1 and 2 in Paper V and items 1-3 above in this paper as highlighted above. These studies will cover a comprehensive comparative accounts of physical and chemical behaviours of elements and their compounds (in different valence states), structure and electronic structure, stereochemistry and bonding, spectra and magnetism, reactivity and reaction pathways (stereoretentive and stereodynamic) in aqueous and non-aqueous solutions as also the extraction procedures (outline only) of the elements (with terrestrial abundances) and preparation/synthesis of compounds, uses of elements and their compounds, periodicity and aperiodicity. (25 lectures)
5. Metal ions in living systems
Essential elements, toxic elements, classification of biological metal ions and ligands according to HSAB principle, basic reactions in biological systems and the role of metal ions, biological metal ions and their functions, toxicity of metal ions like Hg, As, Pb, Cd, Cu, use of chelating agents as drugs (5 lectures)
Group B
3. Nuclear chemistry
Introduction, different modes of radioactive disintegration and nature of radiation, law of radioactive disintegration, radioactive equilibrium, half life and average life periods; different radioactive series (natural and artificial), group displacement law, units and measurements of radioactivity
Isotope, isotone, isobar and nuclear isomer, separation of isotopes, applications of isotopes in medicine, chemical reaction pathways and dating techniques, effect of radiation on water, some pical radiometric estimation and radiometric titration
tyMass defect and binding energy, neutron-proton ratio and their role in determining the stability of the nucleus, concept of nuclear force and qualitative idea of liquid drop model, different types nuclear reactions, nuclear fusion and fission, calculation of fission energy from binding energy
(22 lectures)
4. Treatment of analytical data (error analysis)
Significant figures, precision and accuracy, errors – systematic and random
Mean, variance, standard deviation, different forms of standard deviations, sample and universal standard deviations
Qualitative idea about different frequency distribution, random errors and normal distribution, mathematical expression for normal distribution, calculation of area under normal distribution curve by numerical integration, relation between probability and area
Propagation of errors, general and specific cases, functions involving multiplication, division, exponential and logarithmic calculations
The t-distribution and application, confidence limit, significance testing, least-squares analysis, sensitivity and detection limit (15 lectures)
5. Titrimetric analysis
i) Acid-base reaction Titration including polyprotic acids, mixture of monoprotic acids, acid-base reactions in non-aqueous solvents – levelling effect, titration in basic solvents and in glacial acetic acid (3 lectures)
ii) Redox reaction
Principles, feasibility of redox titrations, redox indicators, examples of various types of redox titrations like chromometry, permangonometry, iodometry, iodimetry etc. (3 lectures)
iii) Complexometric reaction
Multidentate ligands, complexometric titrants, examples with EDTA, metal ion indicators, typical examples of EDTA titrations, masking and demasking agents (3 lectures)
iv) Precipitation reaction
Precipitation titrations with a few typical examples like Vohlard titration, use of adsorption indicators
6. Instrumental methods
i) Electroanalytical
Basic principle of high frequency titration, electrogravimetry
ii) Spectrophotometric
Principle and terminology, Lambert-Beer law, deviation from Lambert-Beer law, errors in spectrophotometric determination; some selective examples of spectrophotometric determination including analysis of multicomponent samples, spectrophotometric titration (3 lectures)
7. Separation techniques
Solvent extraction, distribution ratio, basic principle of solvent extraction, extraction equilibria and effect of pH, simple applications :
Chromatography, basic principles of adsorption and partition chromatography, separation by column and paper chromatography, principle of ion-exchange separation, ion-exchange resin and their exchange capacity (7 lectures)
Paper X Full Marks: 100
Group A
1. Organometallic chemistry:
2. Molecular rearrangement:
3. Dyes and drugs (preparation and uses):
4. Alicyclic Compounds:
5. Heterocyclic compounds:
6. Amino acids and proteins
7. Carbohydrate chemistry:
8. Alkaloids and Terpenes:
Group B
9. Synthetic methodology including disconnection approach, synthon, synthetic equivlents, umpolung, one group disconnection of simple alcohols, olefins and ketones. Synthesis involving enolates and enamines with special reference to diethyl malonate and ethyl acetoacetate. Robinson annelation reaction

10. Pericyclic reactions:
11. Spectroscopy in organic chemistry:

12. Enzyme chemistry:

Paper IX
Group A
1. Thermodynamics of Cells
2. Properties of Ionic Solutions II
3. Reaction Kinetics II
4. Properties of interfaces

5. Cryogenics

Group B
6. Quantum Theory
7. Quantum Mechanics
8. Spectroscopy and photochemistry
9. Dipole moment and intermolecular forces
10. Properties of Macromolecules

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