B.Sc. PsychologyVictor Nandi
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FIRST YEAR PAPER 1.1 BASIC PSYCHOLOGY I UNIT I Introduction What is psychology? Why study psychology? Psychology as a science: methods of psychology-experimental method, systematic observation, case study method, survey method; Early schools of psychology, modern perspectives. UNIT II Biology of Behaviour Species – typical behaviour patterns, neurons & synapses, nervous system - peripheral & central nervous system; brain & sleep, importance of forebrain, association cortex, behaviour & experience, left & right hemisphere functions. UNIT III Cognitive Processes Sensation – Perception – Consciousness & control – Learning – Memory & Forgetting – Thinking & Language. UNIT IV Intelligence Intelligence in Historical Perspective – Nature & Theories of Intelligence. UNIT V Motivation & Emotion Motives as interferences, explanation & predictor, some theories of motivation, biological motivation, social motives – motives to know & to be effective, frustration & conflicts of motives; defense mechanism. Expression & perception of emotion; the physiology of emotion & stress, some theories of emotion. Reference: 1. Morgan C.T. & King R.A. (1994) Introduction to Psychology, Tata McGraw Hill Co. Ltd., New Delhi. 2. Robert A Baron (2002), Psychology, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, India. 3. Michael W. Passer & Ronald E. Smith (2007), Psychology: The Science of Mind & Behaviour, 3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill Edition, New Delhi, India. 4. Robert S. Feldman (2004) Understanding Psychology 6th Edition, Tata McGraw - Hill. PAPER 1.2 SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY Unit I Social Psychology: A Working Definition – Research Methods in Social Psychology – Understanding Research Methods – Systematic Observation: Describing the world around us – Correlation: The search for relationship – The Experimental Method: knowledge through systematic intervention – The Role of Theory in Social Psychology. Unit II Social Perception – Social Cognition – Attitudes – Aspects of Social Identity – Prejudice & discrimination. Unit III Individuals Interpersonal Attraction – close relationships – Social Influence – Prosocial Behaviour – Aggression. Unit IV Groups Nature & Function: Group formation – Function: Roles-Status – Norms – Cohesiveness. Impact of groups on Individual performance: Social facilitation – Social loafing. Group Conflict – Decision Making by Groups – Leadership. Unit V Social Psychology in Action Applying Social Psychology to the Interpersonal aspects of Legal System – Applying Social Psychology to Health – related Behaviour – Applying Social Psychology to the World of Work. Text Books: 1. Baron, R.A. & Byrne, D.: Social Psychology (9th edition), Delhi: Pearson education, 2000. 2. Myers, D.G.: Social Psychology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, 2005. PAPER 1.3 BIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT I Biological Foundation of Behaviour Meaning of Biological Psychological – Viewpoints to explore Biology of Behaviour – Approaches that relate brain & behaviour – Levels of Analysis. UNIT II Functional Neuroanatomy Composition of the Nervous System – Divisions of the Nervous System – Functional descriptions of Brain Structures – Blood supply to the Brain – Newer Imaging Techniques – Cell Specialization. Neurophysiology Electrical signals – Transmission Processes – Circuits – Gross Electrical Activity. Chemical Bases of Behaviour: Neurotransmitters. Hormones & the Brain: Ways by which hormones act – Endocrine glands & their hormones – Impact of hormones on behaviour. UNIT III Evolution & Development of Nervous System Evolution of Brian & Behaviour: Need to study other species. Lifespan Development of the Brian & Behaviour: Processes of Growth & Development of the Brian-Stages of the Development of the Nervous System – Glial Cells-Interaction of intrinsic & extrinsic factors-influence of Experience on Brian Development-Maldevelopment of Brian – Changes in Brian due to Aging-Time scales for describing Brian Development. UNIT IV Regulation & Behaviour Sex Sexual Behaviour: Stages of Reproductive Behaviour – Regulation of Reproductive Behaviour – Role of Pheromones – Diversity of Human Sexual Behaviour. The Two Sexes: Beneficial Mutations of sexual reproduction – Reproductive Strategies of Males Females – Basic types of Mating Systems – Sexual Selection. Sexual differentiation: Determination of Sex – Defining Gender – Role of Genodal Hormones – Social Influences on Sexual Differentiation. Biological Rhythms: Daily Rhythms in Animals – Circadian Clock – circannual Rhythms in Animals. Sleeping & Waking: Stages of Sleep – Evolution of Sleep – Sleep patterns across Lifespan – Underlying Structure of Sleep – Biological functions of sleep – Normal systems Underlying Sleep. UNIT V Cognitive Neuroscience Language & Cognition: Development of Evolution of Speech & Language – Causes of Language Disorders – Organization of Language in the Brian – Functional Neuroimaging – functions of Left & the Right Brian – frontal Lobes & the Higher order cognitive & emotional Functions – Deficits in Spatial Perception & Brian Injury – Recovery of Brian Functions. Text Books: 1. Rosenzweig, M.A., Marc Breedlove, S. Watson, N.V. Biological Psychology, M.A.: Sinauer Associates, Inc, 2005. 2. Wagner, H. & Silber K., Physiological Psychology, NY: BIOS Scientific Publishers, 2004. SECOND YEAR PAPER 2.1 DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY UNIT I INTRODUCTION What is developmental psychology: meaning of developmental changes – significant facts about development – the life span – difficulties in studying life span – development – the life span – developmental tasks during the life span – happiness & unhappiness during life span. UNIT II INFANCY & BABYHOOD The beginning of life & infancy: the beginning – conception – periods & prenatal development – hazards during prenatal period understanding birth complications – characteristics of infancy – developmental tasks – physical developmental – physiological functions – muscle control – speech development play – development of understanding – mental development – personality development – Piaget’s Cognitive developmental stages – hazards & happiness. Babyhood: Characteristics – developmental tasks – physical development – physiological functions – muscle control – speech development – interest in play – development if understanding – mental development – personality development – hazards & happiness. UNIT III EARLY & LATE CHILDHOOD Early childhood: Characteristics – developmental tasks – physical development – skills – speech development – emotional expressions – socialization – play – moral development – family relationships – personality development – hazards & happiness. Late childhood: Characteristics – development tasks – physical growth – skills – speech development – emotional expressions - social behaviour – play interests – moral attitudes & interests – personality changes – hazards & happiness. UNIT IV PUBERTY & ADOLESCENCE Characteristics of puberty – Criteria – Causes – Age – Growth spurt – Body changes – Effects of puberty changes – Hazards & Happiness. Characteristics of adolescence – Development tasks – Physical change – Storm & Stress – Social change – Interest – Morality – Sex Interest & Behaviour – Family relationships – Personality change – Hazards & Happiness. UNIT V FROM ADULTHOOD TO OLD AGE Characteristics of early adulthood – Development tasks – changes in interest – social interest – Sex role adjustment – Vocational adjustments – Marital Adjustments – Adjustment to parenthood – Hazards of vocational & Marital adjustments – Success of Adjustment to adulthood. Characteristics of Middle Age – Developments tasks – Adjustment to physical change & mental changes – Social Adjustment – Vocational Adjustment – to changed family patterns – Being single – loss of a spouse – Adjustment – to changed family patterns – Being single – loss of a spouse – Adjustment to approaching old. Characteristics of old age – Development tasks – Adjustment to physical changes – Change in motor & mental abilities. Changes in interests – Vocational Adjustment – Retirement – Changes in family life – loss of a spouse – Living arrangement for elderly hazards. References: 1. Hurlock, E.B. (1997): Developmental Psychology (IV Edn.), New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill. 2. Santrock, J.W.: Adolescence, New Delhi, McGraw Hill, 2003. 3. Thompson, George G. (1981): Child Psychology (2nd Edn.) Delhi, Surjeet Publications. 4. Berk, L.E. (2005): Child Development, (2nd Edn.), New Delhi, Pearson Education. 5. Shaffer, R.H., Child Psychology, M.A. Blackwell Publishing, 2004. PAPER 2.2 PSYCHOPATHOLOGY UNIT I 1. Introduction Meaning & Nature of Abnormal Behaviour – History of Psychopathology. 2. Classification, Diagnosis & Assessment: Brief History of Classification: Early Efforts – Development of the WHO & DSM Systems. The Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR). Psychological Assessment: Clinical Interviews – Psychological Tests – Behavioural & Cognitive Assessment. Biological Assessment: Neurochemical Assessment – Neuropsychological Assessment – Psychophysiological Assessment. UNIT II DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS Classification, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Biological theories of ADHD – Psychological Theories of ADHD. Conduct Disorders: etiological & Risk Factors. Learning Disabilities: Learning Disorders – Communication Disorders – Motor Skills Disorder – Etiology. Mental Retardation: Traditional Criteria – Classification – The Approach of the American Association of Mental Retardation – Etiology. Autistic Disorder: Characteristics – Etiology. UNIT III ANXIETY DISORDERS Phobias: Specific Phobias – Social Phobias – Etiology of Phobias. Etiology. Panic Disorder – Generalized Anxiety Disorder – Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Somatoform & Dissociative Disorder Somatoform Disorders: Pain Disorder – Bodydysmorphic Disorder – Hypochondriasis – Conversion Disorder – Somatization Disorder – Etiology of Somatoform Disorders. Eating Disorders Clinical description: Anorexia Nervosa – Bulimia Nervosa – Binge Eating Disorder, etiology: Biological Factors – Sociocultural Influences – Psychodynamic Views – Personality & eating Disorders – Characteristics of families – Child Abuse & Eating Disorders – Cognitive Behavioural Views. UNIT IV Mood Disorders General Characteristics of Mood Disorders: Depression – Signs & Symptoms – Mania – Signs & Symptoms – Formal Diagnostic Listings of Mood Disorders – Heterogeneity within the Categories – Chronic Mood Disorders – Facts about Suicide – Prediction of Suicide from Psychological Tests – Preventing Suicide – Clinical & Ethical Issues in Dealing with suicide. Schizophrenia Clinical symptoms: Positive Symptoms – Negative Symptoms – Disorganized Symptoms – Other Symptoms. History of the Concept of Schizophrenia: early Descriptions – The broadened U S concept - The DSM IV-TR Diagnosis – Categories of Schizophrenia in DSM-IV-TR. Etiology: The Genetic Data – Biochemical factors – The Brian & Schizophrenia – Psychological Stress & Schizophrenia – Developmental studies of Schizophrenia. UNIT V Personality Disorders Classifying Personality Disorders: Clusters, Categories & Problems. Odd/Eccentric Cluster: Paranoid Personality Disorder – Schizoid Personality Disorder – Schizotypal Personality Disorder – mDramatic/Erratic Cluster: Borderline Personality Disorder – Histrionic Personality Disorder – Narcissistic Personality Disorder – Antisocial Personality Disorder & Psychopathy. Anxious/Fearful Cluster: Avoidant Personality Disorder – Dependant Personality Disorder – Obsessive – Compulsive Personality Disorder. Sexual & Gender Identity Disorder. Gender Identity Disorder: Characteristics & causes. Substance Abuse & Disorder Substance Abuse – Substance dependence – Etiological Factors in the Development of Substance Dependence: Sociocultural Variables – Psychological Variables – Biological variables. Reference: 1. Davison, G.C., Neale, J.M. & Kring, A.M., Abnormal Psychology (9th Edn.), M.A. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2004. 2. Alloy, L.B., Riskind, J.H. & Manos, M.J., Abnormal Psychology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company, 2005. 3. Cutting, J., Principles of Psychology, NY: OUP, 1997. PAPER 2.3 EXPERIMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY · Attention, perception & psychophysics. · Learning, memory & thinking. · Aptitude. · Intelligence. · Cognitive styles. · Personality. · Motivation. · Attitude & interests. The students should be able to perform at least 10 of the experiments from the list specified in the course curriculum, making sure that at least two are selected from each area mentioned above & must submit a record work. THIRD YEAR PAPER 3.1 THEORIES OF PERSONALITY Unit I INTRODUCTION Definition, Nature & Scope of Personality – The aims of studying personality – The source of the term ‘personality’ – Approaches to studying personality: idiographic versus nomothetic – Effects of personality versus situational effects. Unit II THEORIES & APPROACHES Psychodynamic Theories of Personality: Sigmund Freud, Adler, Carl Jung, Horney, Sullivan, Fromm, Eriksson, - Defence Mechanisms. Trait & Type Approaches to Personality: Cattell, Eysenck, Allport, Five factor model. Learning & Cognitive Approaches to Personality: Pavlov, Skinner, Hull, Dollard & Miller, Bandura, Mischel, Kelly, Rotter & Witkins. Need Theories: Mc Clelland, Atkinson, Murray. Humanistic Theories: Rogers, Maslow. Unit III BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PERSONALITY Genetic Heretability of Personality Behavioural genetics – Behavioural genetics: basic ideas – How the influence of genes is assessed in behavioural genetics – Methods for assessing genetic heritability of personality. BIOLOGICAL & PHYSIOLOGICAL MODELS OF PERSONALITY Psychophysiology, neuropsychology & personality – Eysenck’s biological model of personality & arousal – Gray’s bas/bis theory – Cloninger’s biological model of personality – Empirical evidence for biological theories of personality – The central nervous & biological personality dimensions – The automatic nervous system & biological personality dimensions – Consideration of biological theories of personality. Unit IV PERSONALITY ASSESSMENT Essential Components of Personality Theory. Criteria for evaluating personality theories. Interview technique. Self-Report Inventories: Single Trait Test, Multidimensional Tests. Projective Techniques – Measurement issues. Unit V NEW FRONTIERS IN PERSONALITY RESEARCH Basic assumptions in retrospect – Evaluation of personality theories – Future direction in personality psychology – Genetic influence: Person by situation interaction – Eclecticism & Integral Psychology: Current reflections & preoccupations in Personality research. Unresolved Problems in Personality. Pointers for future personality studies. Reference Books: 1. Schultz (1994). Theories of Personality 5th edition Brooks Cole Pub. Co. 2. Allen (1997). Personality Theories, Development, Growth & Diversity. 2nd edition. Allyn & Bacon. 3. Pervin (1970). Personality Theory & Research. 7th edition. John Wiley Publication. 4. Friedman (2003). Personality: Classic Theories & Modern Research. 2nd Edition: Pearson Education. PAPER 3.2 REHABILITATION PSYCHOLOGY Unit I INTRODUCTION Rehabilitation: Meaning – nature – scope – Rehabilitation History – Genetic – pre-peri-post natal disorder. Disability & Handicap: Types. Unit II REHABILITATION OF HEARING IMPAIRED Sound & human – Hearing Loss – Types – Causes – Effects of hearing Loss – Identification & Assessment – Treatment & Rehabilitation: Medical & surgical-Auditory Rehabilitation Treatment – Educational Approaches. REHABILITATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRED The Visual system – Visual defect – types – causes – identification & prevalence – characteristics. Rehabilitation: Instructional Methods & Material’s Educational approaches – Special Adaptation. REHABILITATION OF PHYSICALLY DISABLED Introduction – Terminology related to Physical Functioning – Cerebral Palsy & other Disorders that Affect Ambulation: Meaning-Prevalence-Classification-Causes. Rehabilitation: Assistive & Adaptive Techniques. Unit III REHABILITATION OF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED Intelligence & Mental Handicap – Classification – characteristics – Incidence & Prevalence – Causes & Prevention – Assessment – Nature & Methods of Behaviourial Approaches in Teaching Mentally challenged & Managing Problem Behaviour. REHABILITATION OF MENTALLY ABNORMAL OFFENDERS Abnormally & Psychopathology –Mentally abnormal Offenders – Legal Process – Compulsory Hospital Admission – Voluntary Organization Services – Support & Rehabilitation. REHABILITATION OF PROBLEM DRINKERS & DRUG ABUSERS Alcohol &Problem Drinking – Conscious Altering Drugs & its effects – Detoxication service – Treatment Methods – Rehabilitation services. Unit IV REHABILITATION OF LEPROSY CURED, VICTIMS OF NATURAL CALAMITIES, VIOLENCE & AIDS Leprosy: Nature – Types – characteristics – Rehabilitation Services for Leprosy Cured – Natural Calamities: Types & Effects – Introduction to social work & Rehabilitation services – AIDS: Nature – Types – Characteristics. Rehabilitation services for AIDS patients. Rehabilitation of victims of violence. Unit V REHABILITATION MEDICINE Introduction – Integral Staff Team – Occupational Therapy – Physical Therapy – Complementary & Alternative Medicine – Yoga. ESSENTIAL OF REHABILITATION Rights for the Disabled in India: Government Services – Non-Government Services – Law & Legal Provisions – PWD Act-Mental Health Act-RCI Act – National Trust Act. Unit VI ETHICAL ISSUES IN REHABILITATION Reference Books 1. Bhattia M.S. (2004). Esentials of Psychiatry – CBCS Publication – New Delhi. 2. Shelly E. Taylor (2003). Health Psychology. Tata McGraw Hill. New Delhi. 3. Joel A. De Lisa, et al (1998): Rehabilitation Medicine: Principle & Practice. 3rd edition, Lippincot Raven Publication. Philadelphia. 4. Fraser N. Watts & Benner O.H. (1998): Theory & Practice of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, John Wiley & Sons. New York. PAPER 3.3 GUIDANCE & COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY Unit I Definition, process & goals: Conceptual clarification of related terms – Guidance & Counseling,. Advice & Counseling, Education & Counseling, Direction Counseling: Instruction & Counseling. Unit II Counseling approaches & & practices – Directive, non-directive, Existential, Eclectic approaches. Unit III What do Counselors do? The effective counselor skill – characteristics & attitudes: need for counseling. Where Counselors work? Unit IV Counseling Interview – Nature significant features, setting & types of counseling interview, Organization & Development & Guideline. Tools & Techniques used in counseling & guidance – Testing & non-testing devices, tools & techniques for environmental information: Tools used in assisting individuals towards self discovery – Some Guidelines. Unit V Ethics in Counseling Codes of Professional Ethics, Ethical Principles & Theory, Ethics & Law, Common Ethical Violations by Mental Health Professional. Reference Books: 1. Patterson, L.E. & Welfel E.R. (2000): The Couselling Process, New Zealand, Wadsworth & Thomson Learning. 2. Gibson & Mitchell (2003), Introduction to Counseling & Guidance. 6th edition, Pearson Education. 3. Maggie Reid (2004), Counseling in different settings, The Reality of Practice. New York, MacMillan Publications. 4. Margaret H. (2002), 2nd edition, A Practical Approach To Counseling, Harlow, Pearson Education. PAPER 3.4 BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Unit I INTRODUCTION What is Behaviour Modification? Areas of Application. Learning, Biological & Cognitive Foundations – Historical Perspectives & Ethical Issues – Giving it all some perspective: A brief history: ethical Issues. Unit II BASIC PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES Operant Conditioning Techniques: Basic paradigm – Schedules of Reinforcement – Token Economy – shaping – Chaining – Premack’s Principle. Relaxation Techniques – Jacobson’s Progressive Muscular Relaxation, Autogenic Training. Systematic Desensitization: Basic Principles – Construction of Hierarchy – Scene presentation – Theory of desensitization. Unit III COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION Meichenbaum’s Self-Instruction Training, Beck’s Model – Relational Emotive Therapy of Ellis. Biofeedback principles & clinical applications. Unit IV CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIOUR THERAPY In anxiety disorders, Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders – Sexual Disorders – Psychotic Disorders – Personality Disorders – Childhood Disorders. Unit V BEHAVIOURIAL ASSESSMENT: INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS Direct Behaviourial Assessment: What to Record & How. Functional Assessment of the causes of Problem Behaviour. Reference Books: 1. Jones, Nelson (2005). Practical Counseling & Helping Skills. 5th Edition. London: Sage Publications. 2. Woolfe, R, Dryden W., Strawbridge S. (2003). Handbook of Counseling Psychology. 2nd Edition, London: Sage Publications. 3. Sundel & Sundel (1990). Behaviour change in the Human Services, 4th Edition. Thousan Oaks: Sage Publications. 4. Feldman et al. Theoretical & Experimental Bases of the Behaviour Therapy. Wiley, London. PAPER 3.5 PSYCHOLOGICAL STATISTICS Unit I INTRODUCTION Meaning & definition of statistics – origin, growth & characteristics – applications in psychology & limitations. Collection of primary data: direct personal interview – indirect oral interview – questionnaire method – information fro local correspondents. Collection of secondary data: published sources – unpublished sources. Unit II DATA CLASSIFICATION & FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION Classification & Tabulation Objectives – types of classification – geographical – chronological – qualitative – quantitative – formation of continuous frequency distribution – uses of tabulation – parts of a table – types of tables – simple & complex tables – general purpose & special tables. Diagrammatic & Graphic Representation General rules for constructing diagrams & graphs – uses of diagrams & graphs. Bar diagram – pie diagram – pictogram – cartogram. Line graph – frequency curve – frequency polygon – histogram – Ogives or cumulative frequency curves – limitations of diagrams & graphs. Unit III DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Averages: Concepts of averages – requisites of a good average – the mean, median & model – concept explanation – merits & demerits – combined mean – numerical computations (simple problems only). DISPERSION Concept of dispersion – measures of dispersion – range – quartile deviation – standard deviation – mean deviation – combined standard of deviation – concept explanation numerical computations (simple problems only). Unit IV PROBABILITY & THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION Concept of population – sample – census – the requisites of sample. Random sampling methods – non-random sampling methods – sampling errors – non-sampling errors. Meaning of probability – addition & multiplication theorems on probability (without proof) – properties of binomial – Poisson & normal distributions – Skewness – moments kurtosis (theory only). Unit V INFERENTIAL STATISTICS: CORRELATION & REGRESSION Meaning of correlation – types of correlation – numerical computations of product – moment & Rank order correlation (simple problems only). Meaning of Regression – computations (simple problems only). Meaning of regression – regression coefficients – regression equations X on Y & Yon X with numerical computations (simple problems only). TESTS FOR SIGNIFICANCE Meaning of hypothesis – types of hypothesis – significance of mean – CR – small sample t–test – large sample t-test (critical ratio). Chi Square – one way analysis of variance (simple problems only) – meaning of standard error – errors in statistical decision – type I & type II errors. Reference Books: 1. Howell, D.C. (2002): Statistical Methods for Psychology, 5th edition. Australia, Duxbury Publishers. 2. Garrett, H.E. (1979): Statistics in Psychology & Education, 9th Indian Reprint, Bombay, Vakils, Feffer & Simons Pvt. Ltd. 3. Gupta, S.P. (2006): Statistical Methods, New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons. 4. Howell, D.C. (2002): Statistical Methods of Psychology. 5th edition. Australia, Duxbury Publishers.