BA ECONOMICSANDHRA UNIVERSITY
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Paper – I – Micro Economics
Module 1 : INTRODUCTION
Nature, Definition and scope of Economics – Methodology in Economics – Micro and Macro, Static and Dynamic, Normative and Positive – Indicatives and Deductive Analysis – Partial and General Equilibrium – Choice as an economic problem.
Module 2: CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR
Utility Analysis – Cardinal and ordinal approaches – Law of Diminishing marginal utility, Law of Equi-marginal utility, Indifference curves – Properties of indifference curves – Price (Budget) line – Equilibrium of the consumer with the help of indifference curves. Demand Analysis – Law of demand – Elasticity of Demand – Price, Income and cross elasticities, Demand forecasting – Meaning and factors influencing demand forecasting – Consumer surplus – Engel curve.
Module 3: THEORY OF PRODUCTION AND COSTS
Objectives of a firm – Production function – Concept of Cobb-Douglas production function – Isoquant – Factor substitution - Law of variable proportions, law of Returns to Scale – Expansion path – Different Concepts – of Revenue and Costs and their interrelation – Equilibrium of the film – Break – Evan analysis.
Module 4: MARKET STRUCTURE
Market forms – Perfect and Imperfect markets. Price Determination and Equilibrium of a firm and industry under perfect competition – Monopoly – Price determination under monopoly – Price discrimination – Monopolistic competition – Price determination. Oligopoly (Kinked demand curve).
Module 5: FACTOR PRICING
Marginal productivity theory of distribution – Theories of wage determination – Wages and collective bargaining: Minimum Wage – Rent – Scarcity rent, Differential rent – Quasi rent. Interest – Classical, Neo-Classical and Keynesian theories – Profit – Dynamic, Innovations, Risk and Uncertainty theories.
PAPER – II MACRO ECONOMICS
Module 1: NATIONAL INCOME
Meaning, Definition and importance of Macro Economics – National Income: Meaning, Definitions: National Income, GNP & NNP, GDP & NDP, Personal Income (PI), Disposable Income (Di), Per Capita Income (PCI), Real National Income (RNI) – Methods of Estimation of National Income (NI) – Measurement of National Income in India.
Module 2: THEORIES OF EMPLOYMENT
Classical theory of employment – Say’s law of markers – Keynesian theory of employment – Consumption function – APC, MPC, factors influencing consumption function – Investment function – MEC and Rate and Rate of Interest and the concept of Multiplier – Accelerator – Applicability of the Keynesian theory to the developing countries.
Module 3: MONEY AND THEORIES OF MONEY
Meaning, functions and classification of Money–Gresham’s law – R.B.I. Classification of Money – M1, M2, M3, M4 Theories of Money – Fisher’s quantity theory of Money, Cambridge approach (Marshall, Pigou, Robertson and Keynes).
Module 4: TRADE CYCLE AND INFLATION
Trade cycles – Meaning and definition – Phases of a trade cycle – Inflation – Definition – Types of Inflation – Causes and effects of inflation – Measures to control inflation.
Module 5: BANKING, STOCK MARKET AND INSURANCE
Functions of Commercial banks – The process of credit creation – Concept of Non Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs) – Concept of SEBI Stock Market – Meaning, functions and importance of Stock Market – Primary and Secondary Markets, Concepts of (a) Shares (b) Debentures, Insurance – Types of Insurance – Life Insurance and General Insurance – Functions of the Reserve bank of India – Methods of credit control – Quantitative and Qualitative Methods.
III – INDIAN ECONOMY
Module 1: CONCEPTS OF DEVELOPMENT:
Meaning of Economic growth and development – Measures of Economics Development – GNP, PCL, PQLI and HDI, Factors influencing Economic development – Sustainable development – Balanced and unbalanced growth – Choice of Techniques Labour intensive and capital intensive methods.
Module 2: STRUCTURE OF THE INDIAN ECONOMY
Basic features – Natural Resources – Land, Water and Forest resources, Basic demographic features – Size and growth of the population – Age and sex composition Rural and Urban population – Occupational distribution – Population policy, National income in India – Trends and Composition – Poverty, Inequalities and unemployment Causes and consequences – Current Five Year Plan – Objectives, Mobilization and Allocation of Resources – New Economic Reforms – Liberalization, Privatization and Globalization in India – Inclusive Growth.
Module 3: INDIAN AGRICULTURE
Nature and importance, Trends in agricultural Production and Productivity: factors determining productivity. Rural Credit – Micro Finance and Self Help Groups (SHGs) Agricultural price policy, Crop insurance, Agricultural Infrastructure and food security. (1) Agricultural Marketing in India, (2) Inspect of Land, informs in India, (3) Provision of Agricultural credit to the tenants.
Module 4: INDIAN INDUSTRY AND SERVICES
Structure and Growth of Indian Industry-Industrial policies of 1956 and 1991, Growth and problems of Small Scale Industry. Foreign Exchanges Management Act (FEMA): Disinvestment Policy in India – Foreign Direct Investment – Growing important of Service Sector in India – Banking Insurance, Information Technology, Education and Health.
Module 5: ANDHRA PRADESH STATE ECONOMY
PAPER – IV(a) PUBLIC FINANCE AND INTERNATINAL ECONOMICS (OPTIONAL)
Module 1: PUBLIC FINANCE AND TAXATION
Meaning and scope of public finance: Distinction between public and private finance. Principal of Maximum Social Advantage – Public goods vs Private goods – Sources of Public Revenue – (a) Taxes (b) Administrative Revenues (c) Commercial Revenues (d) Gifts and grants (e) Deficit Finance – Concept of fiscal deficit – Canons of taxation – (Adam Smith & Modern) – Impact, shifting and Incidence of Taxation, Effects of taxation - The concept of Value added Tax (VAT). Taxes – direct and indirect merits and demerits, Methods of taxations – Progressive proportional regressive and digressive.
Module 2: PUBLIC EXPENDITURE AND PUBLIC DEPT
Meaning and Classification of public expenditure – Wagner’s Law – Peacock – Wiseman – Reasons for the growth of public expenditure – Wagner’s law – Peacock – Wiseman hypothesis – Public Debt – Classification of Public debt – Methods of debt redemption – Causes and effects of the growth of India’s Public Debt.
Module 3: THEORIES OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE
Inter – regional and International Trade – Importance of International Trade – Inter – industry trade – Intra – industry trade - Theories of International Trade – Theory of absolute advantage – Theory of Comparative costs and Hecksher-Ohllin theory. Terms of Trade – Gross Barter and Net Batter and Income terms of trade.
Module 4: PROTECTION AND BALANCE OF PAYMENTS
Tariffs – Meaning and Definition of Tariffs – Types of Tariffs – Tariffs and their effects – Concept of Optimum Tariff – Balance of Payments – Disequilibrium in Balance of Payments – Measures to correct Disequilibrium – Depreciation.
Module 5: FOREIGN TRADE IN INDIA
Recent trends in the composition and Director of India’s foreign trade – Recent EXIM policy – changing role of IMF, IBRD – WTO – Impact of India – Concept of outsourcing.
PAPER-IV(b) QUANTITATIVE THECNIQUES (OPTIONAL)
Module 1: MATRIX ALGEBRA
Matrices – Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and equality of Matrices – Minors, Co-factors of a matrix – Determinants – Properties – Inverse of a matrix – Solution of simultaneous equations by matrix – Inverse method and Cramer’s rule – Depiction of inter industry relationship by matrices.
Module 2: CALCULUS
Definition of a function – Differentiation of a Function: Maxima and Minima, Elasticities, Equilibrium of a consumer and a firm, Inter relationships among total, marginal and average cost and revenues: Constrained optimization problem: Integration of a function, Consumer and producer surplus.
Module 3: CENTRAL TENDENCY AND DISPERSION
Primary and Secondary Data – Graphic and diagrammatic representation of data, Techniques of data collection, Sampling and Census Methods. Measures of Central Tendency – Mean, Median, Mode, Geometric mean and Harmonic Mean. Measures of Dispersion, Range, Quartile Deviation, Mean Deviation, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation, concept of Skewness.
Module 4: CORRELATION AND REGRESSION
Simple Correlation, Coefficient of Correlation: Karl Pearson and Spearman, Regression analysis – Estimation of regression line in a bivariate distribution – Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Method – Interpretation of regression coefficients – Demand forecasting.
Module 5: TIME SERIES AND INDEX NUMBERS
Time series analysis–Concept and Components – Determination of Trend, Simple and Compound Growth Rates – Index numbers: concept, price relative, quantity relative, value relative, Laspeyer’s Paasche’s and Fisher’s. Time Reversal Test and Factor Reversal Test – Constructing Wholesale Price Index and Consumer Price Index.