Certificate Course in Astronomy and AstrophysicsUniversity of Mumbai
Price on request
The University of Mumbai offers Certificate Course in Astronomy and Astrophysics to its students. The course structure for it is as follows:
Fascination of Astronomy
Important branches of Astronomy
astronomy Observational Astronomy : Catalogues and Star charts and instrumentation
astronomy The astronomical Zoo : Solar system, Stars and star clusters, Molecular Cloud Compleses, Galaxies and Clusters of Galaxies, intergalactic medium.
astronomy Windows to the Universe : Radio Astronomy, Infrared, Optical, Ultraviolet, and X-ray and Gamma Ray Astronomy, cosmic rays, rays.
2. Historical Perspectives
astrophysics A. Brief History of Astronomy
astrophysics Western Astronomy-Copernicus, Tycho Brahe, Kepler, Galileo, Newton, Einstein, Hubble, ……
astrophysics B. Space Probes: Apollo Series, Moon Landing, Pioneer, Mariner, Voyager Series, Modern Space probes, Magelan, Galileo, Space Telescopes-IRAS, Hubble, GRO, ASCA ……
3. Basic Mathematics
astronomy Spherical Trigonometry formulae.
astrophysics Spherical Trigonometry formulae.
4. Basic Physics
4.1 Physical concepts
astronomy Density, Pressure, Atmospheric pressure.
astrophysics Temperature and Temperature Scales, Black Body Radiation.
astronomy Velocity, Acceleration, Force; Momentum; Acceleration due to gravity.
4.2 Dynamical calculations.
Orbital Velocity and Escape Velocity, Newton's laws of motion, Newton's law of gravitation, gravitational acceleration of planets; Escape velocity of planets; orbital velocity of planets; Proof of eliptical orbits, Doppler effect.
4.3 Kepler's Laws and Orbits
Elliptical Motion, Eccentricity, Perihelion, Aphelion, Foci, Velocity at Perihelion, Velocity at Aphelion, Velocity at any point, Orbit parameters (a, b), calculating orbit of a comet.
5. Advanced Physics
Electromagnetic Radiation; Electromagnetic Spectrum; Wave length; Frequency; Speed of light, Visible spectrum; Invisible spectrum; Absorption/emission spectrum.. Foundations of relativity.
6. Observational Techniques
A. Astronomical Measurements: Astronomical Unit; Light Year; Parsec; Parallax., Distance to Stars from the parallax and other methods.
B. Magnitude scales : Apparent Magnitude; Absolute Magnitude; Bolometric Magnitude Distance of star from magnitude.
C. Optics : Magnification., lenses and Mirrors; Baclow lens; Eyepieces, Binoculars; Telescopes: Refracting; Reflecting; Casegrian.
D. Time in Astronomy : Types of Year; Tropical Sidereal; Andmalistic; Types of Lunar month; Sidereal; Synodic; Drocenic; Nedical; Sidereal Time; GST; LST; Mean time; Time Zones; IST; LT; Universal Time; Ephemeries Time; Julian date; Calendars; Julian; Gregorian.
E. Calculation : Calculations of travel time of planets; Julian day number calculations; Calculation GST and LST.
F. Celestial Coordinate Systems and Celestial Circles : Equator; Ecliptic; Meridian; Six O clock circle; Celestial Points : Equinoxes and Solstices; Poles (Ecliptic and Equatorial); Precession of Earth's Axis; Celestial Coordinates; Alt/Azimuth; RA/Declination; Longitude/Latitude; Conversion of Coordinates.
7. Astronomy from Indian Almanac
astrophysics 27 Constellations and 12 signs of zodiac
astrophysics Niryaan and Sayan positions of planets.
astrophysics Elongation and visibility of planets
astrophysics Tithi and Nakashtra (meaning), use of Tithi
astrophysicsSampatik Kaal (meaning)
astrophysics Calculations : Elongation of planets and their visibility Elongation chart.
8. Laboratory Astronomy
Observations of elemental spectra and their correlation to Astronomy, absorption and emission features, Dopler Shift, Hubble's Law and expanding universe, Black body ration and temperatures, types variabilities (binary, pulsations etc.) HR diagram.
Size and Distance Scales
Scales on powers of 10, structure differences on size scale, boundaries of dimensions, determination of distance and standard candies.
10. Solar System
Astronomical bodies : Sun, planets and satellites. Gravitational fields Origin of solar system.
Shadows and crescents eclipses; Solar Eclipses : Partial, Total, Annular; Lunar Eclipse : Partial, Total, Annular; Eclipse Year; Nodes; Saros and Metonic Cycle.
11. Minor Bodies in the Solar System
Meteorites, Asteroids, Comets, and their orbits, composition and sizes and masses, Oort's Cloud and Kuiper Belt, inflow rate.
12. Clustering in Space
Size scale of the Universe, planets around stars, stellar clusters, Galaxies, Galactic structures.
13. Exotic Objects in the Universe
Evolution of stars, brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes, pulsars, quasars and X-ray sources.
14. Quiet Universe
Emission in stars, equilibrium conditions in astrophysical objects and structures, dynamic equilibria and importance of rotation and magnetic fields.
15. Violent Universe
Flares on the sun and stars, accretion instabilities, supernovae type I and II, and Active Galactic Nuclei, Galaxy mergers and the Big Bang.
16. Universe at Different Wavelength High & Low Energies
Radio universe, synchrotron emission and jets in stars and galaxies, winds and protostellar and protogalactic matter, protostellar clouds, Infrared Universe and star forming region-atmospheres and halos of stars, Optical Universe and stars and their interactions, velocity distributions and large scale structures. Ultraviolet astronomy-clouds and absorption High energy phenomena in stars production of X rays and Gamma rays, Atmosphere of stars, magnetospheres of pulsars, inner structures of quasars.
17. Invisible Universe
Dark matter in the universe, Halos of Galaxies, neutrinos.
18. Einstein's Universe
The Big bang and cosmology, expanding universe and evidences for Big Bang, Gravitational redshift and time dilation.
19. Outstanding Problems in Astronomy
Unresolved problems in Astronomy and Astrophysics.
Projects and Experiments
astronomy Plot of Comets path.
astronomy Plot of and Sun throughout the year
astronomy T2 and R3 plot: Keplers 3rd law proof.
astronomy Sundial construction : Equatorial and Horizontal.
astronomy Plotting, retrograde motion on sky chart.
astronomy Model of comet's path.
astronomy Path of comet on sky chart.
astronomy Plotting constellations.
astronomy North-South line from shadow of a stick, determination of latitude and longitude from shadow.
astronomy Plotting Sunset/moon rise.
astronomy Sun-Spot observation.