JRD Global EDU

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  • Diploma
  • Online
  • Duration:
    3 Years
  • Online campus

Acupuncture (from Latin, acus (needle) and punctura (to puncture)[1]) is a form of alternative medicine[2] and a key component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM)[3] involving thin needles being inserted into the body.[4] TCM theory and practice are not based upon scientific knowledge,[5] and acupuncture is commonly described as pseudoscience.[6][7] There is a diverse range of acupuncture theories, involving different philosophies.[8] Techniques vary depending on the country.[9] The method used in TCM is likely the most widespread in the US.[2] It is most often used for pain relief,[10][11] though it is also used for a wide range of other conditions.[3] It is generally only used in combination with other forms of treatment

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What you'll learn on the course

Auditory pathway
Functional anatomy of eye

Teachers and trainers (1)


Course programme

General Physiology
1. Physiology: what and why?
2. Characteristics of control systems
3. Looking back & forth
4. Reading efficiently

1. Physicochemical properties of cell membrane
2. Cell membrane: permeability & transport
3. Principles of bioelectricity
4. Genesis of resting membrane potential
5. Action potential
6. Properties of nerve-fibres
7. Functional anatomy of neuromuscular junction
8. Neuromuscular transmission
9. Muscle proteins – (Biochemistry)
10. Excitation – contraction coupling
11. Contraction kinetics of skeletal muscles
12. Smooth muscle
13. Injury & repair of nerves and muscles
14. Energetics of nerve & muscle
15. Work Physiology

1. Functions of plasma proteins
2. Principles of hemopoiesis
3. Regulation of erythropoiesis
4. Destruction of red cells: Jaundice
1. Anemia
5. Regulation of WBC production
6. Functions of WBC
7. Functions of platelets
8. Hemostasis
9. Blood groups
10. Physiological basis of transfusion medicine

Respiratory System
1. Introduction to respiratory system
2. Lung volumes and capacities
3. Mechanics of respiration – I
4. Mechanics of respiration – II
5. Composition of respired air: pulmonary ventilation
6. Exchange of gases in the lungs
7. Ventilation – perfusion ratio
8. O2 carriage, O2–dissociation curve
9. CO2 carriage, CO2–dissociation curve
10. Neural regulation of respiration
11. Chemical regulation of respiration
12. Hypoxia, cyanosis and dyspnoea
13. Special features of pulmonary circulation
14. Artificial respiration Artificial respiration
15. Therapeutic use of oxygen .

Cardiovascular System
1. Introduction to CVS
2. Properties of cardiac muscle
3. Action potential and spread of impulse in the heart
4. E-C coupling in the myocardium
5. ECG
6. Pressure changes in the heart. Cardiac cycle
7. Functional basis of heart sounds and murmurs
8. Neural regulation of cardiac activity
9. Regulation of heart rate
10. Intrinsic regulation of heart’s action. Cardiac output
11. Cardiac output: measurement and regulation
12. Nutrition and metabolism of heart
13. Exercise physiology
14. General principles of hemodynamics
15. Cardiovascular reflexes
16. Neural control of circulation
17. Special features of cerebral circulation
18. Special features of circulation in skeletal muscles and skin

Gastrointestinal System
1. Introduction to G.I. Physiology: general organization of G.I. tract
2. Mastication and deglutition
3. Gastric secretion
4. Regulation of gastric secretion
5. Pathophysiology of peptic ulcer
6. Biliary and pancreatic secretions
7. Physiology of colon
8. Pathophysiology of diarrheal disease

1. Introduction to nutrition. RMR
2. Carbohydrates and dietary fiber
3. Proteins
4. Fats
5. Recommended dietary allowances
6. Diet during pregnancy and lactation
7. Diet during infancy and childhood

Environmental Physiology
1. Introduction to environmental physiology
2. Body temperature regulation
3. Man in cold environment
4. Man in hot environment
5. Hypothermia and its clinical applications
6. Physiological responses to high attitude
7. Physiological responses to high atmospheric pressure

1. Introduction to reproductive system
2. Male reproductive physiology
3. Female reproductive physiology
4. Hypothalamic – pituitary – gonadal axis
5. Puberty
6. Pregnancy
7. Parturition and lactation
8. Reproductive ageing

1. Renal hemodynamics and glomerular filtration
2. Renal tubular function – I
3. Renal tubular function – II
4. Regulation of renal function
5. Physiological basis of renal function tests
6. Micturition

1. Introduction to neurophysiology I
2. Introduction to neurophysiology II
3. CSF
4. Neuroglial cells
5. Synaptic transmission
6. Properties of synaptic transmission
7. Neurotransmitters
Sensory system
1. Coding of sensory information
2. Functional organization of ascending sensory pathways
3. Thalamus
4. Sensory cortex
5. Perception of sensory stimuli
6. Physiology of pain
Motor system
1. Characteristics and properties of reflexes
2. Functional organization of motor system – I
3. Functional organization of motor system – II
4. Brain stem reflexes, stretch reflexes and tendon reflexes
5. Basal ganglia
6. Cerebellum
7. Vestibular neck reflexes: maintenance of equilibrium
8. Localizing the level of lesion in neurological disease
Visceral and motivational system
1. Autonomic nervous system
2. Hypothalamus
3. Limbic system and emotions

EEG, sleep and higher nervous functions
1. Electroencephalography
2. Sleep and wakefulness
3. Learning and memory – I
4. Learning and memory – II
5. Speech

Special Senses
1. Functional anatomy of eye
2. Functions of retina: photoreception
3. Functions of retina: colour vision and electroretinography
4. Central mechanisms of vision and visual perception
5. Functional anatomy of ear: impedance matching
6. Organ of Corti: peripheral auditory mechanism
7. Auditory pathway
8. Central auditory mechanism and auditory perception
9. Olfaction
10. Physiology of taste

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