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## Important information

- Course
- Duration:

2 Years

Suitable for: all the aspirants of iit and nits

## Course programme

CHEMISTRYGeneral topics: Concept of atoms andmolecules; Dalton's atomic theory; Mole concept;Chemical formulae; Balanced chemical equations;Calculations (based on mole concept) involvingcommon oxidation-reduction, neutralisation, anddisplacement reactions; Concentration in terms ofmole fraction, molarity, molality and normality.Gaseous and liquid states: Absolute scale oftemperature, ideal gas equation; Deviation fromideality, van der Waals equation; Kinetic theory ofgases, average, root mean square and mostprobable velocities and their relation withtemperature; Law of partial pressures; Vapourpressure; Diffusion of gases.Atomic structure and chemical bonding: Bohrmodel, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantumnumbers; Wave-particle duality, de Brogliehypothesis; Uncertainty principle; Qualitativequantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom,shapes of s, p and d orbitals; Electronicconfigurations of elements (up to atomic number36); Aufbau principle; Pauli's exclusion principleand Hund's rule; Orbital overlap and covalentbond; Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitalsonly; Orbital energy diagrams for homonucleardiatomic species; Hydrogen bond; Polarity inmolecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspectsonly); VSEPR model and shapes of molecules(linear, angular, triangular, square planar,pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal,tetrahedral and octahedral).Energetics: First law of thermodynamics; Internalenergy, work and heat, pressure-volume work;Enthalpy, Hess's law; Heat of reaction, fusion andvapourization; Second law of thermodynamics;Entropy; Free energy; Criterion of spontaneity.Chemical equilibrium: Law of mass action;Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier's principle(effect of concentration, temperature andpressure); Significance of ΔG and ΔGo inchemical equilibrium; Solubility product, commonion effect, pH and buffer solutions; Acids andbases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts); Hydrolysisof salts.Electrochemistry: Electrochemical cells and cellSYLLABUS FOR IIT-JEE 2012reactions; Standard electrode potentials; Nernstequation and its relation to ΔG; Electrochemicalseries, emf of galvanic cells; Faraday's laws ofelectrolysis; Electrolytic conductance, specific,equivalent and molar conductivity, Kohlrausch'slaw; Concentration cells.Chemical kinetics: Rates of chemical reactions;Order of reactions; Rate constant; First orderreactions; Temperature dependence of rateconstant (Arrhenius equation).Solid state: Classification of solids, crystallinestate, seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b,c, α, β, γ ), close packed structure of solids (cubic),packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices; Nearestneighbors, ionic radii, simple ionic compounds,point defects.Solutions: Raoult's law; Molecular weightdetermination from lowering of vapor pressure,elevation of boiling point and depression offreezing point.Surface chemistry: Elementary concepts ofadsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms);Colloids: types, methods of preparation andgeneral properties; Elementary ideas ofemulsions, surfactants and micelles (onlydefinitions and examples).Nuclear chemistry: Radioactivity: isotopes andisobars; Properties of α, β and γ rays; Kinetics ofradioactive decay (decay series excluded), carbondating; Stability of nuclei with respect toproton-neutron ratio; Brief discussion on fissionand fusion reactions.Isolation/preparation and properties of thefollowing non-metals: Boron, silicon, nitrogen,phosphorus, oxygen, sulphur and halogens;Properties of allotropes of carbon (only diamondand graphite), phosphorus and sulphur.Preparation and properties of the followingcompounds: Oxides, peroxides, hydroxides,carbonates, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulphatesof sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium;Boron: diborane, boric acid and borax; Aluminium:alumina, aluminium chloride and alums; Carbon:oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid); Silicon:silicones, silicates and silicon carbide; Nitrogen:APPENDIX - 1[ 15 ]oxides, oxyacids and ammonia; Phosphorus:oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoricacid) and phosphine; Oxygen: ozone andhydrogen peroxide; Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide,oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid andsodium thiosulphate; Halogens: hydrohalic acids,oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleachingpowder; Xenon fluorides.Transition elements (3d series): Definition,general characteristics, oxidation states and theirstabilities, colour (excluding the details ofelectronic transitions) and calculation of spin-onlymagnetic moment; Coordination compounds:nomenclature of mononuclear coordinationcompounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms,hybridization and geometries of mononuclearcoordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral,square planar and octahedral).Preparation and properties of the followingcompounds: Oxides and chlorides of tin andlead; Oxides, chlorides and sulphates of Fe2+, Cu2+and Zn2+; Potassium permanganate,potassium dichromate, silver oxide, silver nitrate,silver thiosulphate.Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring oresand minerals of iron, copper, tin, lead, magnesium,aluminum, zinc and silver.Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles andreactions only (industrial details excluded);Carbon reduction method (iron and tin); Selfreduction method (copper and lead); Electrolyticreduction method (magnesium and aluminum);Cyanide process (silver and gold).Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V(only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+,Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+); Nitrate, halides(excluding fluoride), sulphate and sulphide.Organic chemistry concepts : Hybridization ofcarbon; Sigma and pi-bonds; Shapes of simpleorganic molecules; Structural and geometricalisomerism; Optical isomerism of compoundscontaining up to two asymmetric centres, (R,S andE,Z nomenclature excluded); IUPAC nomenclatureof simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons,mono-functional and bi-functional compounds);Conformations of ethane and butane (Newmanprojections); Resonance and hyperconjugation;Keto-enol tautomerism; Determination of empiricaland molecular formulae of simple compounds(only combustion method); Hydrogen bonds:definition and their effects on physical propertiesof alcohols and carboxylic acids; Inductive andresonance effects on acidity and basicity oforganic acids and bases; Polarity and inductiveeffects in alkyl halides; Reactive intermediatesproduced during homolytic and heterolytic bondcleavage; Formation, structure and stability ofcarbocations, carbanions and free radicals.Preparation, properties and reactions ofalkanes: Homologous series, physical propertiesof alkanes (melting points, boiling points anddensity); Combustion and halogenation ofalkanes; Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reactionand decarboxylation reactions.Preparation, properties and reactions ofalkenes and alkynes: Physical properties ofalkenes and alkynes (boiling points, density anddipole moments); Acidity of alkynes; Acidcatalysed hydration of alkenes and alkynes(excluding the stereochemistry of addition andelimination); Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4and ozone; Reduction of alkenes and alkynes;Preparation of alkenes and alkynes by eliminationreactions; Electrophilic addition reactions ofalkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen);Addition reactions of alkynes; Metal acetylides.Reactions of benzene: Structure and aromaticity;Electrophilic substitution reactions: halogenation,nitration, sulphonation, Friedel-Crafts alkylationand acylation; Effect of o-, m- and p-directinggroups in monosubstituted benzenes.Phenols: Acidity, electrophilic substitutionreactions (halogenation, nitration andsulphonation); Reimer-Tieman reaction, Kolbereaction.Characteristic reactions of the following(including those mentioned above) : Alkylhalides: rearrangement reactions of alkylcarbocation, Grignard reactions, nucleophilicsubstitution reactions; Alcohols: esterification,dehydration and oxidation, reaction with sodium,phosphorus halides, ZnCl2/concentrated HCl,conversion of alcohols into aldehydes andketones; Ethers:Preparation by Williamson'sSynthesis; Aldehydes and Ketones: oxidation,reduction, oxime and hydrazone formation; aldolcondensation, Perkin reaction; Cannizzaroreaction; haloform reaction and nucleophilicaddition reactions (Grignard addition); Carboxylicacids: formation of esters, acid chlorides andamides, ester hydrolysis; Amines: basicity of[ 16 ]Matrices as a rectangular array of real numbers,equality of matrices, addition, multiplication by ascalar and product of matrices, transpose of amatrix, determinant of a square matrix of order upto three, inverse of a square matrix of order up tothree, properties of these matrix operations,diagonal, symmetric and skew-symmetricmatrices and their properties, solutions ofsimultaneous linear equations in two or threevariables.Addition and multiplication rules of probability,conditional probability, Bayes Theorem,independence of events, computation ofprobability of events using permutations andcombinations.Trigonometry: Trigonometric functions, theirperiodicity and graphs, addition and subtractionformulae, formulae involving multiple and submultipleangles, general solution of trigonometricequations.Relations between sides and angles of a triangle,sine rule, cosine rule, half-angle formula and thearea of a triangle, inverse trigonometric functions(principal value only).Analytical geometry: Two dimensions: Cartesiancoordinates, distance between two points, sectionformulae, shift of origin.Equation of a straight line in various forms, anglebetween two lines, distance of a point from a line;Lines through the point of intersection of two givenlines, equation of the bisector of the anglebetween two lines, concurrency of lines; Centroid,orthocentre, incentre and circumcentre of atriangle.Equation of a circle in various forms, equations oftangent, normal and chord.Parametric equations of a circle, intersection of acircle with a straight line or a circle, equation of acircle through the points of intersection of twocircles and those of a circle and a straight line.Equations of a parabola, ellipse and hyperbola instandard form, their foci, directrices andeccentricity, parametric equations, equations oftangent and normal.Locus Problems.Analytical geometry: Three dimensions:Direction cosines and direction ratios, equation ofsubstituted anilines and aliphatic amines,preparation from nitro compounds, reaction withnitrous acid, azo coupling reaction of diazoniumsalts of aromatic amines, Sandmeyer and relatedreactions of diazonium salts; carbylamine reaction;Haloarenes: nucleophilic aromatic substitution inhaloarenes and substituted haloarenes (excludingBenzyne mechanism and Cine substitution).Carbohydrates: Classification; mono- anddi-saccharides (glucose and sucrose); Oxidation,reduction, glycoside formation and hydrolysis ofsucrose.Amino acids and peptides: General structure(only primary structure for peptides) and physicalproperties.Properties and uses of some importantpolymers: Natural rubber, cellulose, nylon, teflonand PVC.Practical organic chemistry: Detection ofelements (N, S, halogens); Detection andidentification of the following functional groups:hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic), carbonyl(aldehyde and ketone), carboxyl, amino andnitro; Chemical methods of separation ofmono-functional organic compounds from binarymixtures.MATHEMATICSAlgebra : Algebra of complex numbers, addition,multiplication, conjugation, polar representation,properties of modulus and principal argument,triangle inequality, cube roots of unity, geometricinterpretations.Quadratic equations with real coefficients,relations between roots and coefficients, formationof quadratic equations with given roots, symmetricfunctions of roots.Arithmetic, geometric and harmonic progressions,arithmetic, geometric and harmonic means, sumsof finite arithmetic and geometric progressions,infinite geometric series, sums of squares andcubes of the first n natural numbers.Logarithms and their properties.Permutations and combinations, Binomialtheorem for a positive integral index, properties ofbinomial coefficients.[ 17 ]a straight line in space, equation of a plane,distance of a point from a plane.Differential calculus: Real valued functions of areal variable, into, onto and one-to-one functions,sum, difference, product and quotient of twofunctions, composite functions, absolute value,polynomial, rational, trigonometric, exponentialand logarithmic functions.Limit and continuity of a function, limit andcontinuity of the sum, difference, product andquotient of two functions, L'Hospital rule ofevaluation of limits of functions.Even and odd functions, inverse of a function,continuity of composite functions, intermediatevalue property of continuous functions.Derivative of a function, derivative of the sum,difference, product and quotient of two functions,chain rule, derivatives of polynomial, rational,trigonometric, inverse trigonometric, exponentialand logarithmic functions.Derivatives of implicit functions, derivatives up toorder two, geometrical interpretation of thederivative, tangents and normals, increasing anddecreasing functions, maximum and minimumvalues of a function, Rolle's Theorem andLagrange's Mean Value Theorem.Integral calculus: Integration as the inverseprocess of differentiation, indefinite integrals ofstandard functions, definite integrals and theirproperties, Fundamental Theorem of IntegralCalculus.Integration by parts, integration by the methods ofsubstitution and partial fractions, application ofdefinite integrals to the determination of areasinvolving simple curves.Formation of ordinary differential equations,solution of homogeneous differential equations,separation of variables method, linear first orderdifferential equations.Vectors: Addition of vectors, scalar multiplication,dot and cross products, scalar triple products andtheir geometrical interpretations.PHYSICSGeneral: Units and dimensions, dimensionalanalysis; least count, significant figures; Methodsof measurement and error analysis for physicalquantities pertaining to the following experiments:Experiments based on using Vernier calipers andscrew gauge (micrometer), Determination of gusing simple pendulum, Young's modulus bySearle's method, Specific heat of a liquid usingcalorimeter, focal length of a concave mirror and aconvex lens using u-v method, Speed of soundusing resonance column, Verification of Ohm's lawusing voltmeter and ammeter, and specificresistance of the material of a wire using meterbridge and post office box.Mechanics: Kinematics in one and twodimensions (Cartesian coordinates only),projectiles; Uniform Circular motion; Relativevelocity.Newton's laws of motion; Inertial and uniformlyaccelerated frames of reference; Static anddynamic friction; Kinetic and potential energy;Work and power; Conservation of linearmomentum and mechanical energy.Systems of particles; Centre of mass and itsmotion; Impulse; Elastic and inelastic collisions.Law of gravitation; Gravitational potential and field;Acceleration due to gravity; Motion of planets andsatellites in circular orbits; Escape velocity.Rigid body, moment of inertia, parallel andperpendicular axes theorems, moment of inertia ofuniform bodies with simple geometrical shapes;Angular momentum; Torque; Conservation ofangular momentum; Dynamics of rigid bodies withfixed axis of rotation; Rolling without slipping ofrings, cylinders and spheres; Equilibrium of rigidbodies; Collision of point masses with rigid bodies.Linear and angular simple harmonic motions.Hooke's law, Young's modulus.Pressure in a fluid; Pascal's law; Buoyancy;Surface energy and surface tension, capillary rise;Viscosity (Poiseuille's equation excluded), Stokes'law; Terminal velocity, Streamline flow, equation ofcontinuity, Bernoulli's theorem and its applications.Wave motion (plane waves only), longitudinal andtransverse waves, superposition of waves;Progressive and stationary waves; Vibration ofstrings and air columns; Resonance; Beats; Speedof sound in gases; Doppler effect (in sound).Thermal physics: Thermal expansion of solids,liquids and gases; Calorimetry, latent heat; Heat[ 18 ]conduction in one dimension; Elementaryconcepts of convection and radiation; Newton'slaw of cooling; Ideal gas laws; Specific heats (Cvand Cp for monoatomic and diatomic gases);Isothermal and adiabatic processes, bulk modulusof gases; Equivalence of heat and work; First lawof thermodynamics and its applications (only forideal gases); Blackbody radiation: absorptive andemissive powers; Kirchhoff's law; Wien'sdisplacement law, Stefan's law.Electricity and magnetism: Coulomb's law;Electric field and potential; Electrical potentialenergy of a system of point charges and ofelectrical dipoles in a uniform electrostatic field;Electric field lines; Flux of electric field; Gauss'slaw and its application in simple cases, such as, tofind field due to infinitely long straight wire,uniformly charged infinite plane sheet anduniformly charged thin spherical shell.Capacitance; Parallel plate capacitor with andwithout dielectrics; Capacitors in series andparallel; Energy stored in a capacitor.Electric current; Ohm's law; Series and parallelarrangements of resistances and cells; Kirchhoff'slaws and simple applications; Heating effect ofcurrent.Biot-Savart's law and Ampere's law; Magnetic fieldnear a current-carrying straight wire, along theaxis of a circular coil and inside a long straightsolenoid; Force on a moving charge and on acurrent-carrying wire in a uniform magnetic field.Magnetic moment of a current loop; Effect of auniform magnetic field on a current loop; Movingcoil galvanometer, voltmeter, ammeter and theirconversions.Electromagnetic induction: Faraday's law,Lenz's law; Self and mutual inductance; RC, LRand LC circuits with d.c. and a.c. sources.Optics: Rectilinear propagation of light; Reflectionand refraction at plane and spherical surfaces;Total internal reflection; Deviation and dispersionof light by a prism; Thin lenses; Combinations ofmirrors and thin lenses; Magnification.Wave nature of light: Huygen's principle,interference limited to Young's double-slitexperiment.Modern physics: Atomic nucleus; Alpha, beta andgamma radiations; Law of radioactive decay;Decay constant; Half-life and mean life; Bindingenergy and its calculation; Fission and fusionprocesses; Energy calculation in these processes.Photoelectric effect; Bohr's theory of hydrogen-likeatoms; Characteristic and continuous X-rays,Moseley's law; de Broglie wavelength of matterwaves.