M.A. In Linguistics

Bharathiar University
In Coimbatore

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  • Master
  • Coimbatore
  • Duration:
    2 Years
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Where and when

Starts Location
On request
Coimbatore
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046., Tamil Nadu, India
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Frequent Asked Questions

· Requirements

A candidate who has passed the Degree Examination in any main subject of study of this University or an examination of some other University accepted by the syndicate as equivalent thereto shall be eligible for admission to the Master of Arts in Linguistics Degree of this University.

Course programme

CORE PAPER-SEMESTER-I
PAPER-1 PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY
OBJECTIVE:
· To train the students in identifying the speech sounds of world language and to enable them to classify and the
transcribe the speech sounds of languages of various nature besides imparting them different schools of thoughts
pertaining to phonetics & Phonology.
UNIT I: PHONETIC STUDY
Phonetic study: Articulatory, Acousis, Auditory-Articulatory mechanism-active and passive articulators-different kinds of
structures-air stream mechanism-acoustic properties of sounds -perception of sounds -ear training.
UNIT II: CLASSIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS
Speech sounds-Vowels and consonant and their sub classification-Co articulation-segments-Syllables: open and close, perk
and coda-Supra segmental: stress, pitch, intonation.
UNIT III: TRANSCRIPTION
Recording and transcribing speech sounds-Phonetic transcription-narrow and broad transcription.
UNIT IV: PHONOLOGY
Phonemes and allophones-Allophone distribution-Phoneme identification procedures-Neutralization and archiphoneme.
UNIT V: PHONOLOGY IN DIFFERENT SCHOOLS
Descriptive phonology-Prague phonology-generative phonology

PAPER-2: MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce the minimal meaningful units of language and their arrangement in words and sentences to the students.
· To impart the construction types, the relationship existing among the various member constituents of sentences, their
meaning to the students besides introducing various syntactical theories.
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO MORPHOLOGY
Nature and scope of morphology - definition and illustration of the terms morpheme, allomorph - parallelism between these
terms and the phonological terms phoneme, allophone - identification of morphemes - procedures for segmenting morphs -
ANN 11-B MA LINGUISTICS (CBCS) 2008-09 Page 6 of 41
grouping allomorphs into morphemes - conditioning of allomorphs: phonological, morphological, types of morphs: Zero,
empty, portmanteau, discontinuous etc;
UNIT II: MORPHEMES AND MORPHOLOGICAL PROCESSES
Arrangement of morphemes-Morphological processes: addition, subtraction, internal change, etc; -Affixes: Prefix, infix,
suffix, suprafix- Root versus sten- Inflection versus derivation-Morphological models.
UNIT III: MORPHOPHONEMICS AND SANDHI
Morphophonemics -Morphophoneme -Morphophonemic processes-Alternations: regular and irregular; automatic and nonautomatic,
internal and external-base form-canonical form
UNIT IV: CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS
Constitutes and constituents - Immediate constituents-Kinds of ICs -Form classes-Structural ambiguity-Hierarchical
structure-Virtues and inadequacies of IC analysis
UNIT V: CONSTRUCTIONAL ANALYSIS
Construction types: endocentric, exocentric-subdivision under the above types -syntactic linkage: inflection, concord,
government, cross reference-phrase structure and transformations-Phrase structure grammar-Some syntactic models.

PAPER 3 HISTORICAL AND COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce various approaches and classification made in language analysis to the students.
· To impart different types of linguistic changes taking place in the language across the time.
· To equip the students in reconstructing historical changes taken place in cognate language with the
linguistics evidences and
· To enable the students to classify the languages based on the geographical area.
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION
Synchronic and diachronic approach to language-Use of written records for historical study of languages-Classification of
languages: genealogical, typological -Criteria for classifying languages into various families-Typological classification:
analytic or isolative agglutinative, inflectional or synthetic and polysynthetic-Basic word order type: SVO,SOV, etc.
UNIT II: LINGUISTICS CHANGES AND THEIR CAUSES
Sounds change-Gradualness and of sound change-Some well known sound laws: Grimm's law, Varner's law, Grossman's
law-Phonetic and phonemic changes -Major types of sound change: split and merger, conditioned and unconditioned,
assimilation, dissimilation, mater thesis, vowel harmony, haplology, Epenthesis-Loss of sounds: syncope, apocope etc. -
Addition of sounds-Modifications to the Neogrammarian theory-social motication for sound change-Lexical diffusion-
Exceptions to sound change: analogy, borrowing etc. Transformational generative approach to sound change: rule addition,
rule deletion, insertion-Feeding order and bleeding order.
UNIT III: RECONSTRUCTION AND SUB GROUPING
Identification of cognates-Reconstruction of phonology of the proto language-Reconstruction of morphology and syntax of
the proto language-Internal reconstruction- sub grouping within a family-shared innovation and retentions-Family tree
model- relative chronology of different changes- Understanding of culture of the speakers of the proto language: Kinship
system environments, food and other articles. .
UNIT IV: VARIATION AND CHANGE IN LANGUAGE
Variation in language and language contact-Use of dialect geography for historical Linguistics-Dialect, Idiolect, isogloss,
Focal area, Relicarea, Transition area etc.-Anology its relationship to sound change- Types of anology: Phonological,
grammatical and lexical-Linguistics borrowing prestige and need filling motives-Bilingualism, Pialginization and creolization-
Semantic variation and changes.
UNIT V: AREAL CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGES
Language families of South Asia-Areal features and convergence processes -India (South Asia) as a linguistic area-
Ergativity, Dative subjects, Retroflexes, Repeated use of conjunctive particles, other shared regional and pan-South Asian
characteristics.

CORE PAEPR-SEMESTER-II
PAPER 4: LANGUAGE AND COMMUNICATION
OBJECTIVES:
· The course is designed to give introductory knowledge about the relationship found between language communication
and enabling the students to know the various theories, different methods of communication.
UNIT I: LANGUAGE, SOCIETY AND COMMUNICATION
Inter-relationship of language, society and communication-definition of language, society and communication-meaning,
needs and means of communication -the process and types of communication-barriers for communication-communication
gap -verbal and non-verbal communication.
UNIT II: COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS AND MODELS
Communication theories-Models of communication: Shannon and Weaver, Lass well, Schrumm, Osgood, Westly, New comb,
Gatekeeper theories -Writing and sppech systems in communication.
UNIT III: MASS MEDIA AND SOCIETY
Characteristics of mass media-print Media-Newspapers-Magazines, periodicals, advertisements, announcements and booksradio
television, cinema and photographic communication-Mass media and society-language use in different mediamodernization
of language for use in different Media -Modernization of language for use in different Media-case studies.
UNIT IV : SOCIAL APPROACH TO THE STUDY OF COMMUNICATION
Communication and Society - the role of mass communication and mass media on public opinion formation, national and
social development, inter and intra group communication - nature of audience - homogeneous and heterogeneous audience
- communication and smaller larger social groups - social development and communication.
UNIT IV : LANGUAGE USE, COMMUNICATION AND CONCEPT OF MODERNIZATION
Language use - choice of styles, register words and other structure for specific purposes in communication and their special
significance - formal and informal situation and communication pattern - emerging patterns of communication - wider
communication - networks of communication - bilingual and multilingual situation and mass communication.

PAPER 5: SOCIOLINGUISTICS AND DILECTOLOGY
OBJECTIVES:
· Language is the major instrument of social interaction as well as social identity. So, the social aspects of the language
reveals new dimensions of the Linguistic study. Therefore, the Sociolinguistics and Dialectology describes the study of
the relationship between language and society, which is very useful for the students those who are interested on
language and society and its variations.
UNIT I: DEFINITION OF SOCIOLINGUISTICS:
Sociolinguistics-Methodological preliminaries: Selection the linguistics variables, collection of the texts, identifying linguistic
variable and their variants in texts. Method of quantifying linguistics variation.
UNIT II: LANGUAGE, SOCIETY AND LANGUAGE VARIETIES
Speech community-Verbal repertoire-linguistic competence and communicative competence-Linguistics variability:
identification of linguistics and social variables-patterns of variations: regional and social, formal and informal, standard and
non-standard-the concept of register and the dimension of communication-vernacular, restricted and elaborated codes.
UNIT III: LANGUAGE PLANNING
Language planning-Definition-theory and practice-corpus and status planning-orthographic reforms and literacy,
standardization -Modernization-national language and nationalism.
UNIT IV: LANGUAGE AND ITS VARIATIONS
Language, dialects, idiolects, Varieties,- Mutual intelligibility-shared and non-shared features between dialects-Regional,
Social, professional, dialects.
UNIT V DIALECT STUDIES
Field methods and Techniques: Linguistic survey of India - dialect study in Dravidian language in general and Tamil in
particular -preparation of questionnaires, conducting surveys-analytical procedures and preparation of dialect atlas.

PAPER 6. LANGUAGE TEACHING METHODS
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce the relevance of Linguistics in the field of language by imparting various methods and
approaches of language teaching
· To make the students understand the role of programmed learning contrastive analysis and error
analysis and
· To enable the knowledge of testing and evaluation in the context of language teaching and learning.
UNIT I: LINGUISTICS AND LANGUAGE TEACHING AND LEARNING
Learner, acquisition, learning and teaching -Socio-cultural setting, problems and methods in first and second language
teaching-learning and teaching-cognate language learning and Foreign language learning-main principles of language
teaching and learning-approaches to language learning: Behaviourstic and Mentalistic approaches to language learning-
Teaching language structure and communicative Teaching.
UNIT II: PROGRAMMED LEARNING AND TEACHING AIDS
The relevance of programmed instruction in foreign language teaching and learning-Various teaching aids: charts, maps
and Models flash cards, slide projector, gramophone records, tape recorder, film strips and projector teaching machines,
T.V. language Laboratory, computer-their role in language teaching and learning.
UNIT III: CONTRASTIVE ANALYSIS
Reasons for systematic comparison of two different linguistic systems and cultures-Various level of comparisons:
Phonological systems, grammatical systems, lexical systems culture, positive transfer (facilitation)negative transfer
(interference)
UNIT IV: ERROR ANALYSIS
Error and mistake -error analysis and its use-Significance of learner's errors-steps in error analysis-Sources of errors-Ways
and means to overcome the errors.
UNIT V: LANGUAGE TESTING
Principles and methods of language testing-concepts of language testing-types of tests-aptitude, diagnostic, prognostic,
achievement and proficiency -reliability and validity of tests.

SEMESTER-III
PAPER 7: TRANSLATION THEORY AND PRACTICE
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce various theories of translation evolved world wide besides giving a brief history of
translation.
· To teach the ways and means of evaluating the translation process and
· To introduce the concept of machine translation besides giving practical exercises for translation both
in traditional fashion and mechanized fashion.
UNIT I: A BRIEF HISTORY OF TRANSLATION
History of translation works since early times-Development of translation as an art and Science-Definition of translationneed
and scope of translation-Types of translation-word to word, phrase to phrase and sentence to sentence-level of
translation.
UNIT II: THEORIES OF TRANSLATION
Historical Survey of the development of theories of translation -techniques and methods of translation of creative literaturetranslation
of scientific and technological literature-translation of literature-translation of literature in social science and
humanities.
UNIT IV: TESTING AND EVALUATION OF TRANSLATION
Limits of translatability and quality in translation-Methods of testing and evaluating translation-feed back for translation.
ANN 11-B MA LINGUISTICS (CBCS) 2008-09 Page 10 of 41
UNIT V: MACHINE TRANSLATION
Machine translation-human aided machine translation-theory of machine translation-merits and demerits of Machine
translation-practical problems in machine translation

PAPER 8: DEVELOPMENT OF LANGUAGE FOR SCIENCE:
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce the concept of language for special purpose in general and for science in particular
· To inculcate the developing techniques for promoting languages for science
· To make the students aware of the strategies of changing the phonological level of language, enriching the
vocabulary and introducing different style and usage of language for science and
· Eventually to enable the students to understand the characteristic of science language.
UNIT I : LANGUAGE FOR SCIENCE: AN INTRODUCTION
Language for special purpose (Science Vs every day language-development of language for science in the west and Indiaeducational
planning and the development of language for science -evaluation of language for use in science.
UNIT II: TECHNIQUES OF DEVELOPING AND PROMOTING LANGUAGE FOR SCIENCE
Introduction to the role of translation-language enrichment, improving language efficiency-areas of language to be
developed for scientific purpose-language planning
model vs planning language for science-status and corpus planning to promote a language for scientific purpose -Haugan's
Model of language Modernization vs development of language for Science.
UNIT III: CHANGES AT PHONOLOGICAL LEVEL TO PROMOTE SCIENCE
Transfer of phones among language to accommodate science data graphisation of phonemes-nativization principles and
phonological transfer-scope of phonological development towards better presentation of scientific literatures like Biology,
Physic etc; -effect of phonological transfer and introduction of new graphemes in language structure-script reform in Indian
language.
UNIT IV: LEXICAL ENRICHMENT
Borrowing of lixicon -lexicon-partial, computer nativization -principles governing lexical transfer-creation of lexical items and
technical terms and the processes involved in them -semantic extension-revival of archaic forms-developing new lexicon -
principles involved in the development of lexicon-introduction of new prefixes, suffixes and infixes-allowing new cluster in
language-adopting global word formation rules-lexicalisation process in language
UNIT V: STYLE AND USAGE
Various styles of presentation in a language-discourse, demonstrative, narrative, descriptive, instructive, etc-choice of style
in developing a language for science-components of science literature-Theatric function and the language for science-
Universal of science literature-units symbols, equation, expressions, etc;-grammatical analysis of science literature sentence
length and efficiency of language to impart scientific concepts.

PAPER 9: COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce the basic concepts of computer and its role in the field of Linguistics.
· To guide the students where the computer can be exploited in the domain of applied Linguistics.
· To teach certain important computer languages or software which suit well in language analysis and
teaching and
· To impart the natural language processing for the purpose of translation and language teaching
UNIT I : INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Computer hardware, software - types of computers, digital, analogue, and others - computer languages - use of computer
in different disciplines
UNIT II INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
Computational linguistics - Computer dictionary, parsing analysis - application of computers in various linguistic research
activities - stylistics, translation, text editing, text editing, teat analysis, indenting, bibliography preparation, word
processing, etc.
UNIT III COMPUTER LANGUAGE
An introduction to computer language like BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, C language and other-ther role of BASIC: String,
Variables, Statements, operations, etc; -use of BASIC in Linguistic research-programming perspectives in BASIC.
UNIT IV: NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (NLP) THROUGH COMPUTERS
Introduction to computational, grammars-LEG, GPSG-natural language processing: Morphology and syntax-text processing
UNIT V: COMPUTER IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS
A survey of computer aided language learning (CALL) and language teaching (CALT)-problems in learning and teaching
phonology, Morphology, syntax, lexicon, etc.

SEMESTER-IV
PAPER 10: FIELD LINGUISTICS
OBJECTIVES:
· To help the students under stand the importance and role of field Linguistics in Linguistics area
· To equip the students in obtaining the technical know how of corpus elicitation corpus analysis and
Evaluation and analysis and Evaluation and
· To equip the students to do Linguistics
UNIT I: INTRODUCTION TO FIELD LINGUISTICS
Aims of Field Linguistics -place of Field linguistics-use of field linguistics-Methods involved in field Linguistics-Field linguistic
surveys-Field linguistics tools.
UNIT II: FIELD LINGUISTICS MACHINERY
Investigators-informant-qualification, selection, use of informants(sampling)-community and its role in data collection-kinds
of data-working sessions-report formation-prerequisites.
UNIT III: DATA COLLECTION
Questionnaire-preparation, administration Data-clicitation procedure, recording, preservation, collection proceduresmethods;
Interview method-participant observation method -schedule, etc.
UNIT IV: DATA ANALYSIS
Data description: language structure, language contrast, language variation, language learning disciplines-structural
description: sound, word, construction, meaning descriptions-presentation methods.
UNIT V: EVALUATION
Evaluation of questionnaire, data , analysis and description, evaluation strategies-sample linguistic survey-Field linguistics in
relation to descriptive, historical, socio and psycho linguistics.

PAPER 11: PROJECT WORK AND VIVA VOICE
Selected text will be given to the students for translation in their mother tongue Discussion of the Translated text
will be made in the class room -A brief report to be submitted about their translation experience.
ELECTIVE PAPERS
PAPER 1: INTRODUCTION TO LANGUAGE STRUCTURE AND LANGUAGE USE
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce the basic components of language and various pattern of language structure and
· To enable the students understand the fact that how language in used in different domain and how
components of language are enriched besides equipping them in the social aspect of language.
UNIT I: COMPONENTS OF LANGUAGE
Components of language-Sound-Phone-Phoneme-Morpheme-word-phrases-sentences-its function
UNIT II: PATTERNS OF LANGUAGE STRUCTURE
Patterns of language structure-types-SVO-SOV-Dravidian Language structures-Indo-European language structure.
UNIT III: LANGUAGE USE
Language use-Definition-language use in various domains-education-administration-mass communication -Radio-Television-
Newspapers-Journals
UNIT IV: LANGUAGE USE AND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Language use and Language development -principles of language development-concepts of Modernization- standardization -
graphisation.
UNIT V: LANGUAGE AND CONTACT
Language identity and language loyalty -maintenance and shift -language convergence-pidginization and creolization -
language use and attitudes.

PAPER 2: HISTORY OF TAMIL LANGUAGE
OBJECTIVES:
· To present a brief history of Tamil language and its development occurred across various periods.
· To give room for students to have the exposure on salient features of medieval Tamil and modern
Tamil and
· To provide an opportunity to the students for understanding the fact that how legitimately other
languages made an impact over Tamil language.
UNIT I : A BRIEF HISTORY OF TAMIL LANGAUGE
Origin of Tamil language - history - historical evidences - proto Dravidian and Tamil language.
UNIT II : ANCIENT TAMIL
Ancient Tamil - language of Bhrami inscription - Tamil in Tolkappiyam - Tamil in Sangam period - Tamil language after
Sangam period.
UNIT III : MEDIEVAL TAMIL
Medieval Tamil - Tamil in the period of Pallavas - Cholas - Naikars.
UNIT IV : MODERN TAMIL
Modern Tamil - 19th and 20th Century.
UNIT V : IMPACT OF OTHER LANGUAGE ON TAMIL
Impact of other language on Tamil - code maixng - code switching - Tamil dialects - Change of Meaning - form - new
style.

PAPER 3 : LANGUAGE, CULTURE AND SOCIETY
OBJECTIVES:
· To inculcate the sense of relating the language with society and to make the students understand how one affects
another and
· To introduce the concept of culture and its relating language besides equipping the students to have clear picture
about the socio-cultural organization relating to language.
UNIT I : SOCIOLOGY OF LANGUAGE
Descriptive Sociology of language, situational shifting, Metaphorical switching - Dynamic Sociology of language - unstable
bilingualism, stable bilingualism; Applied sociology of language, the creation and revision of Writing System, language
planning.
UNIT II : LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
Interaction of languge and social life - speech community, diglossia, bilingualism, speech situation, speech event, speech
act, speech styles - social context of speaking - correlation of speech - variation of speech - variations; social, age, sex,
education, etc.
UNIT III : LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Linguistics and ethnology, cultural emphasis, metaphorical usages, ethnography of speaking - Ethnolinguistics - colour, the
lexicon of environment, personal names, etc.
UNIT IV : SOCIAL CONTEXT AND SEMANTIC FEATURE
Cultural patterning of speech behaviour, social maning in linguistic structures - Micro and Macro Sociolinguistics -
Multilingual settings, domains of language behaviour.
UNIT V : SOCIO-CULTURAL ORGANISATION
Language constraints and language reflections, the uses of Sociolinguistics, speaking as social action: Malinowski's
approach, philosophical approaches, speech act theory and Linguistic Anthropology.

PAPER 4: BASIC LINGUISTICS
OBJECTIVES:
· To impart the knowledge on linguistics its various levels viz. phonology, morphology, syntax and
semantics
· To introduce the concept that language is dynamic which leads to have language changes and
· To teach the methods of language are enriched besides equipping them in the social aspect of language.
UNIT I : INTRODUCTION
Definition of language and linguistics; branches of linguistics - synchronic, descriptive and diachronic; historical and
comparative; theoretical and applied; language - speech and writing systems.
Design of language - central and peripheral systems, central, grammatical (morphological and syntactic) peripheral;
phonological, Semantical and phonetic systems.
UNIT II : PHONETICS AND PHONOLOGY
Phonetics - definition-articulatory, auditory and acoustics, IPA/Block and Trager Charts; Articulatory - initiation - phonation
and articulation; Co-articulations - Anatomical structure of the vocal apparatus, classification of the speech sounds -
definition - vowels, consonants, segmental Vs suprasegmental. Phonology - concept of phoneme - phoneme as contrastive
unit, class of sounds, elements of a system, phone, allophone and phoneme. Contrast, complementation, phonetic
similarity, neatness of pattern and economy; principles of phonemic analysis. Description of phonemes.
UNIT III - MORPHOLOGY AND SYNTAX
Morpheme - definition, identification and classification of Morphemes - distribution, types of Morphemes; inflection and
derivation; syntax - syntactical units - word, phrase, clause, sentence; IC analysis; constructions types - exocentric and
endocentric. Kind of syntactic linkage concord, agreement, Government and cross reference, transformational generative
approach to syntax - deep structure, surface structure, phrase structure, transformations.
UNIT IV - SEMANTICS LINGUISTICS CHANGE
Meaning - different approaches, lexical and grammatical meaning, components of lexical meaning designation, range of
application, polysemy, homonymy, synonymy, kinds of meaning.
UNIT V - HISTORICAL AND COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS
Historical, kinds of change - phonetic, phonological, grammatical, lexical and semantic changes, mechanisms of changes -
Major and minor, Major - sound change, analogy and borrowing, Minor - metathesis, assimilation, dissimilation, haplology,
comparative, cognate language, reconstructions - internal and external.

PAPER 5: COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce the basic concepts of computer and its role in the field of Linguistics.
· To guide the students where the computer can be exploited in the domain of applied Linguistics.
· To teach certain important computer languages or software which suit well in language analysis and teaching and
· To impart the natural language processing for the purpose of translation and language teaching
UNIT I : INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS
Computer hardware, software - types of computers, digital, analogue, and others - computer languages - use of computer
in different disciplines
UNIT II INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL LINGUISTICS
Computational linguistics - Computer dictionary, parsing analysis - application of computers in various linguistic research
activities - stylistics, translation, text editing, text editing, teat analysis, indenting, bibliography preparation, word
processing, etc.
UNIT III COMPUTER LANGUAGE
An introduction to computer language like BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, C language and other-ther role of BASIC: String,
Variables, Statements, operations, etc; -use of BASIC in Linguistic research-programming perspectives in BASIC.
UNIT IV: NATURAL LANGUAGE PROCESSING (NLP) THROUGH COMPUTERS
Introduction to computational, grammars-LEG, GPSG-natural language processing: Morphology and syntax-text processing
UNIT V: COMPUTER IN APPLIED LINGUISTICS
A survey of computer aided language learning (CALL) and language teaching (CALT)-problems in learning and teaching
phonology, Morphology, syntax, lexicon, etc.

SUPPORTIVE PAPER
PAPER 1: BASIC PHONETICS
OBJECTIVES:
· To make the students understand the physiology of articulation so that they could produce the sounds correctly
without blurs.
· To make the students gain spoken skill in a language.
UNIT-I PHONETICS AND BRANCHES OF PHONETICS
Phonetic study- articulatory process -phases of speech -Articulatory, Audio and Acoustic approaches -ear training and
performance.
UNIT -II ARTICULATORY PHONETICS:
Anatomical structure of the vocal apparatus -Physiological bases of speech production supraglottal and supraglottal organs
of speech as a system of passages and cavities.
Configuration: Active and passive articulators - stricture types - air- stream mechanism - direction of air flow-glottal
function: principal phonation types -voice and voiceless-breathy voice -shispery -murmer -creaky voice -relationship of
phonation and intonation -aspiration.
UNIT-III CLASSIFICATION SPEECH SOUNDS:
Definition and classification of vocoids, eontoids and approximants -phonetics symbols-modification of sounds -stop with
reference to air-stream mechanisms -oral drills.

PAPER 2:BASICS OF TRANSLATION
OBJECTIVES:
· To introduce the theories and principles of translation in order to make out students better
translations.
· To impart practical translation skills to our students
UNIT I BASIC COMPONENTS OF TRANSLATION
Basic components of Translation -Definition -need of translation-importance of translation -source VS target languages
ANN 11-B MA LINGUISTICS (CBCS) 2008-09 Page 17 of 41
UNIT II TYPES OF TRANSLATION
Types of Translation -Full Vs partial -total VS restricted -phonological -Graphological translations extent -level -ranks
UNIT III EQUIVALENCES
Translation equivalence-types of equivalence -textual equivalence-formal correspondence-dynamic equivalence
UNIT IV PROBLEM OF TRANSLATION
Types of problems- linguistics vs non linguistics problems -lexical problems -cultural problems -problems on translation
scientific terms -science text -problems on translating literature- metaphor -similie.
UNIT V PRACTICAL EXERCISE
Students will be asked to translate various kinds of text such as science, literature, conversation, official letters, documents
and so on.

PAPER 3: INTRODUCTION TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES
OBJECTIVES:
· To impart the knowledge about features of Dravidian language to the students in general and to equip
them have clear knowledge in subgroups of Dravidian languages and their unique features.
UNIT I: DRAVIDIAN
History of comparative Dravidian studies, common characteristic feature of the Dravidian languages-basic differences
between Dravidian family and other language families of India.
UNIT II: SOUNDS OF DRAVIDIAN
Phonological structure of Dravidian Language, vowels and their development-short vs long; ai/e and u/o alternations;
metathesis etc; consonants and their developments in Dravidian languages-voiced vs voiceless plosives; nasal plus double
plosives, laterals, trills and fricatives.
UNIT III: NOUNS IN DRAVIDIAN
Noun morphology: Gender-number system; pronouns, numerals, case system
UNIT IV: VERBS DRAVIDIAN
Verb Morphology: stem classification, past and nonpast formation; negative expression in Dravidian; pronominal suffixes;
Imperative mood etc.
UNIT V: GROUPING DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGES AND LISTING THEIR FEATURES
Sub-grouping of Dravidian languages, Family tree diagram-Features of Dravidian sub groups.

PAPER 4: LANGUAGE FOR SPECIAL PURPOSE
OBJECTIVES:
· To make our students understand the structure of discourse in general and that of scientific language
in particulars
· To enable our students to become better communications in the field of science and teachings
UNIT I LANGUAGE FOR SPECIAL PURPOSE
Language for common use and language for special purpose -differences -evaluation of language for use in Science.
UNIT II MODIFYING LANGUAGES FOR SPECIAL PURPOSE
Techniques of promoting a language for use in Science-Language enrich mention
UNIT III PLANNING LANGUAGE
Status and corpus planning -Language-modernization and standardization.
UNIT IV TECHNICAL TERMS
Lexical enrichment and development of language - technical terms and their formation.
UNIT V STYLE OF SPECIAL LANGUAGE
Style and usage of language for special purpose-sentence length and efficiency of language to impact scientific concepts.

PAPER 5. DICTIONARY MAKING
OBJECTIVES:
· To impact the skill of dictionary making
· To introduce the concepts of relationship among words, synonymy, antonymy, etc.
UNIT I LEXICAL MEANING
Introduction - Lexicology and Lexicography - Lexical and Grammatical Meaning - Homonymy-Antonym- Synonymy -
Homograph-Semantically related - words - Polysemy.
UNIT II FORMAL ASPECTS OF LINGUISTIC VARIATION
Formal variation - Paradigm - Canonical form - Lexical unit - variation in Language - Dialect - Standard - Diglossia -
Linguistic Change - place of these aspects in dictionary making.
UNIT III TYPES OF DICTIONARIES
Criteria of classification - Encyclopedia VS Linguistic, Synchronic VS Diachronic - General VS Restricted - Monolingual
VS Bi/ multi Lingual dictionaries - Dictionary VS Thesaurus - Learner's Dictionary - Size: Small, Medium, big etc.
Presentation , Alphabetical - conceptual .
UNIT IV LEXICOGRAPHICAL METHOD
Basic Design - Collection of Material - Selection of entries - Construction of entries - Lemma - representation of
Pronunciation - Grammatical category - Special problems of bilingual and multilingual dictionaries - lexical equivalents
- translation etc.
UNIT V FORMAT AND PLAN
Formal introduction - Guide to the users - abbreviation - key to pronunciation - purpose - user - type - nature - size-
time - expenditure - printing etc.



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