M.A. Police Science & Criminology

Victor Nandi
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  • Master
  • Distance learning
  • Raiganj
  • Duration:
    2 Years
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Raiganj
1st floor, Line Bazar, Raiganj, WB, 733134, West Bengal, India
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Course programme

FIRST YEAR PAPER 1.1 PRINCIPLES OF CRIMINOLOGY Unit I Introduction Criminology – Historical Perspective, Nature, origin & scope – Social & Legal concept of Crime – Classification of offenders – Criminology as a Social Science, Criminology & other Social Sciences – Criminology & Social Justice System. Society & Crime: Society – its characteristics. Community – its characteristics, culture, Social structure, Socialization, Social, Context – Crime as a Social Problem. Unit II Theoretical approaches to Crime & Criminality Schools of Criminology – Classical, Neo Classical Schools, Cartographic School, Positive School, Biological & Constitutional School, Contemporary Sociological Theories, Anomic Theory, Differential Association Theory, Group Conflict Theory, Containment Theory, Neutralization & drift theories. Subculture theories, Labeling theory, Radical Criminology; Multiple factor approach for the explanation of crime. Unit III Social Process Deviance Social Conformity, Social organizations, Social Disorganization, Social Deviance & Social Pathology: Family disorganization, Individual Disorganization & Community Disorganization. Social Change & Crime: Industrialization, Urbanization, Mobility Migration, Economic Development, Modernization & Criminalization Process. Unit IV Facets of Crimes & Profiles of Crime in India Conventional & new forms of crime, Crime against women – crimes against children – Organized crimes – White collar crimes, Political Crimes – Terrorism, Communal Violence, Drug Trafficking, Narco-Terrorism – Environmental Crimes – Computer Crimes – Victimless Crime – Marginal Criminality, Crime in India Statistics: National Crime Records Bureau – Crime Prevention, Efforts of United Nations on Crime Prevention. Unit V Juvenile Delinquency Definition, Distinction between delinquency & crime – status offence – Nature & Patterns of Juvenile Delinquency – Juvenile Justice System, Scope of Correction in the Juvenile Justice System in India – U.N. Convention on the Rights of child – U.N. Standard Minimum Rules of Juvenile Justice (Beijing Rules, 1986) Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2000. Suggested Readings: 1. Ahmed Siddique, (1993), Criminology, Problems & Perspectives, III Edn., Eastern Book House, Lucknow. 2. Brenda S. Griffin & Charles T. Griffin, (1978), Juvenile Delinquency in Perspective, Harper & Row, New York. 3. Clayton A. Hartjen & Priyadarshini S., Juvenile Delinquency in India, Rutgers University, New Jersey. 4. Crime In India, 2000, National Crime Record Bureau, Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi. 5. Justice Juvenile (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2000. References: 1. Ahmed Siddique, (1993), Criminology, Problems & Perspectives, III Edn., Eastern Book House, Lucknow. 2. Alien, Friday, Roebuck & Sagarin(1981), Crime & Punishment: An Introduction to Criminology. The Free Press, New York. 3. Brendan Maguire & Polly F. Radosh, (1999), Introduction to Criminology, Wadsworth Publishing Company, Boston, USA. 4. Edwin H. Sutherland & Donald R.Cressey (1974), Principles of Criminology, Lippincott, Philadelphia. 5. Gupta, M.C., Chockalingam, K & Jaytilak Guha Roy, (2001), Child Victims of Crime: Problems & Perspectives, Gyan Publishing House, New Delhi – 110002. 6. Harry Elmer Barnes & Negley K. Teeters, (1966), New horizons in Criminology, Prentice Hall. PAPER 1.2 JUDICIARY, CRIMINAL LAW & PROCEDURE Unit I Criminal Law Social norms, values & criminal law. Development of Criminal law in India. From Diverse Uncodified to Uniform Codified Criminal Law. Relationship between Statutory Common Law & case law of crime. Criminal Law in a Welfare State. Jurisdiction of Criminal Law. Unit II Criminal Responsibility Criminal Law as a means of social control. Elements of Criminal liability – Actus Reus Non Facit Reum Nisi Mens Sit Rea – Strict Liability – Vicarious Liability, Joint Liability. Conditions for Negativing Liability – General Exceptions, Insanity, Private Defence, etc. Unit III Legal Provisions Relating To Traditional Crimes (IPC) General Explanations under IPC. Four stages of crime – Intention, Preparation, Attempt, Commission, Abatement, Criminal Conspiracy, Offences against the state. Offences against Public Tranquility – Unlawful assembly, Riot, etc. Offences against Human Body – Murder, Hurt, Wrongful Confinement & Rape. Offences against Property – Theft, Extortion, Robbery & Dacoity, Criminal Breach of Trust, Cheating, Criminal Trespass. Offences relating to documents – Forgery & making false documents. Offences relating to marriage – Bigamy & adultery – Cruelty by husband or relatives of husbands (498A). Attempts to commit offences (511). Unit IV Judiciary, Criminal Courts & Criminal Procedure Organization & functions of the Judiciary in India – Formal & informal (Nyaya Panchayet & Lok Adalats) Criminal courts – District, State & Union – Jurisdictions & Powers. Constitutional guarantees relating to Criminal trials (Articles 20(a), (b), (c) & 21). Concept of fair trial & the rights of the accused. Investigation process: Arrest, investigation, search, seizure, remand, etc. The bail proceedings. Types of criminal trials. Summary, summons & warrant trials. Appeals, Revision & Review. Role of the Prosecution. Withdrawal from prosecution & compounding of offences. Unit V Accusatorial System of Trial – Distinction from Inquisitorial System of Trial. Fact in issue, Relevant Fact, Evidence-proved, Disproved etc. – admissibility & relevancy. Relevant Evidence in statement form – Admissions, Confessions, Dying Declarations, Expert opinions, etc. Conspiracy Evidence. Approver Evidence. Presumptions of Law & Presumptionsof Fact. Burden of Proof. Examination In-Chief, Cross Examination & Re-Examination & Impeaching the credit of witness. References: 1. Pillai, A.P.S., Criminal Law, N.M. Tripathy, 1996 Edn. 2. Guar K.D., Criminal Law, Oxford University Press, 1995. 3. Kelkar, R.V., Outlines of Criminal Procedure, 1996 Edn. 4. Ratanlal & Dhirajlal, Indian Penal Code of Criminal Procedure, 1995 Edn. 5. Ratanlal & Dhirajlal, Indian Penal Code (Student’s Edn. 1995.). PAPER 1.3 POLICE ADMINISTRATION & INVESTIGATION Unit I Role & Objectives of Contemporary Policing in India History of Indian Police - Police as an Agency of Criminal - Police Act of 1861 Unit II Organization & Structure of Police in India Structure of State Police - District Police - City Police - Special Police Units of the States - Central Police Organizations & Institutions - Problems of Police Personnel Management - Recruitment & Selection - Training Career Planning Maintenance – Discipline - Motivation & Morale Police Reforms: National Police Commission (NPC) Recommendations, 1979. Unit III Functions of Police General Approach to the three basic statutes – IPC, Cr.P.C. & Evidence Act – Maintenance of Law & Order Police functions prescribed by law – Police mechanics – Scientific Methods of Investigation – The scope of Community Policing – Role of Police Enforcement of Social Legislations – Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act, 2000 – Immoral Traffic Prevention Act, 1986 – Dowry Prohibitation Act, 1961. Unit IV Special Functions of Police Dealing with Internal Emergencies – Combating Organized Crime – Upholding Human Rights. Unit V Police Image Public Perception of Police – Police Self Image – Measures To Improve Police Image – Developing Healthy Police Public Relationship. Reference Books: 1. Bayley, D.H. (1969), The Police & Political Development in India, Princeton University Press, Princeton. 2. Diaz, S.M. (1976), New Dimensions to the Police Role & Functions In India, SVP National Police Academy, Hyderabad. 3. Edelstein, C.D. & Wicks, R.I. (1977), An Introduction To Criminal Justice, McGraw Hill. 4. Gupta, A., Police in British India – 1886 to 1947, Concept Publishing Co., New Delhi. PAPER 1.4 PENOLOGY & CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION Unit I Nature of Punishment i. Punishment: Meaning, aims, philosophy of punishment. ii. Punishments in Ancient Mediaeval India. iii. Types of Punishment. iv. Objectives of Punishment. v. Sentencing – Principles, Policies & Procedures. vi. Capital Punishment. vii. Recent Approaches to Punishment. viii. Corrections in India: Role of Central & State Governments. Unit II Legal Framework of Correction i. History & Evolution of prison Legislation. ii. Correctional Manuals, rules, etc. iii. Prison Act, Prisoners’ Act, Transfer of Prisoners Act and Juvenile Justice (Care & Protection of Children) Act. iv. Jail Manual. v. Various Prison Reform Committees & Commissions. Unit III Correctional Institutions i. Institutionalization: Meaning & Purpose. ii. Evolution & Development of Prison System in India. iii. Classification System: Meaning & Significance. iv. Adult Institutions: Central, District & Sub-jails. v. Juvenile Institutions – Observation Homes, Juvenile Justice Board, Child Welfare Committee, Special Homes, Children Homes, Shelter Homes, Special Juvenile Police Unit. vi. Women Institutions: Women Prison, Vigilance Home, Protective Home, Short Stay Home, Open Prisons. Unit IV Institutional Correctional Programmes i. Boarding, Lodging & Medical Care. ii. Educational Programmes. iii. Work Programmes. iv. Self Government & other activities. v. Prison culture. vi. Rights of Prisoners. Community Based Correction i. Probation: Concept & Scope, Historical Development in India. ii. Probation of offenders Act. iii. Probation Procedures: Pre-sentence Investigation Report, Supervision, Revocation of Probation, etc. Unit V Parole & After-care i. Parole: Meaning & scope. ii. Parole provisions, rules & supervision. iii. Halfway houses, organization & significance. iv. Role of voluntary agencies in prevention of crime, Institutional & Non-institutional treatment of offenders. v. After care & Rehabilitation, Need, Importance & Services in India. Suggested Reading: 1. Ahmad Siddique, (1993), Criminology, Problems & Perspectives, III Edn., Eastern Book Company London. 2. Bhattacharya S.K., (1982), Social Defence, Manas Publications, New Delhi. 3. Goswami, B.K., (1980), Critical Study of Criminology & Penology, Allahabad Agency, Allahabad. 4. Paranjepe, N.V., (2002), Criminology & Penology, Central Law Publications, Allahabad. Reference Books: 1. Andrew Von Hirsch (1987), Past or Future Crimes: Deservedness & Dangerousness in the Sentencing of Criminals, Rutgers University Press. 2. Bhattacharya, S.K., (1986), Probation System in India, Manas Publication, New Delhi. 3. Brodie, S.R. (1976), Effectiveness of Sentencing, Home Office, London. 4. Chockalingam, K., (1993), Issues in Probation in India, Madras University Publication, Madras. SECOND YEAR PAPER 2.1 FORENSIC SCIENCE Unit I Forensic Science Definition & scope – history & development of forensic science – the organization of Forensic Science Laboratory – Mobile Forensic Science Laboratory – role of Forensic Scientist in justice administration system. The Scene of Crime: General crime scene procedure – notes on observation, photography, sketching. Unit II Physical Evidence Classification of physical evidence – class & individual characteristics – identification & individualization of physical evidence. Transfer & Trace Evidence: Principles of exchange – microtraces – varieties of trace evidence – pollens, fibers, metallic fragments, soil, paint flakes / smear, glass particles, dust & airborne particles etc., - their significance. Unit III Personal Identification Fingerprints – footprints – bite marks – voice prints – cheiloscopy – rugoscopy – anthropological examination of skull, skull-photo / radiographic comparison – significance of skeletal remains – DNA profiling. Polygraph & its limitations. Blood, semen, saliva & sweat-fibers & hairs – blood spatter patterns, their significance in criminal investigation. Unit IV Foot ware Impressions Tyre marks, skid marks – tool marks – their significance. Firearms: Classification of firearms – ammunition & their components – identification of firearms from fired bullets & cartridge cases – range of firing & its significance. Questioned Documents: Handwriting & typewriting comparisons exemplars – lasures, obliterations & alterations – age of documents. Glass Fractures: Types of fractures – determination of direction of impact, forensic significance. Unit V Arson & Explosives The chemistry of fire – spontaneous combustion – collection & preservation of arson evidence for analysis – electrical fires – high & low explosives – evidence at the scene of explosions. Drugs & Poisons: Classification collection & preservation of drugs & poisons – effects of alcoholic beverages – alcohol & vehicular accidents. Instrumental Methods in Forensic Science: Residue analysis with special reference to arson, explosives & shootout cases – advantages of instrumental methods (AAS, NAA, SEM, EDX, AES) in trace elements. Reference: 1. Forensic Science: An Introduction to Criminalistics: Peter R.De Forest, R.E. Ganesslen & Hendry C. Lee, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1983. 2. Science & the Detective: Brian H. Kaye, VCH, Weinbeim, Federal Republic of Germany, 1985. 3. Introduction to Forensic Sciences, 2nd Edition, William G.Eckert, CRC Press, New York 1997. 4. Crime Scene to Court – The Essentials of Forensic Science, Peter White (Ed.). The Royal Society of Chemistry, U.K., 1998. PAPER 2.2 FORENSIC MEDICINE Unit I Introduction – Definition – Legal Procedures – Inquests – Types of Courts, witnesses, Summons – Medico legal documents – Evidences – Dying Declaration – Examination of a dead body at the scene of a crime – Indian Medical Council, functions – Privileges of a Registered Medical Practioner – Infamous Conduct – Professional Secrecy – Malpractice Negligence – Consent – Euthanasia. Unit II Identification – Data – Race, Sex, Age, Stature – Scars, Tattoo marks – Anthropometry & Dactylography – Prints, hairs & other fibers – Medico legal importance of Age – Superimposition & other methods of reconstruction – Trace evidences & Locard’s principle – Death, Definition, Types, Suspended Animation, natural death, unnatural death, sudden deaths, Post mortem changes: Immediate, Early & Late changes after death, Preservation of Bodies – Presumption of Death – Exhumation. Unit III Injuries: Definitions – Mechanical Injuries: Abrasions, Contusions, Lacerations, Incisions, Cut wounds, Punctured wounds, Thermal Injuries, Electrical Injuries, fire arm & Blast injuries – Asphyxial death: Hanging, Strangulation, Smothering, Gagging, Choking, Dry & Wet drowning – Battered baby syndrome – Methods of torture. Unit IV Potency – Sterility – Virginity – Artificial insemination & Test tube babies – Pregnancy, signs of recent & remote pregnancy, Superfoetation, Superfoecundation, Pseudocyesis, Surrogate mother, Disputed paternity & maternity, Abortion – Delivery – Infanticide, Acts of Commission & omission – sexual offences: Natural, Unnatural, Perversions. Unit V Forensic Psychiatry: Diagnosis, Certification, methods of restraint of a insane person, civil & criminal responsibilities of a insane person – Toxicology; corrosive agents, Irritants, Cerebral poisons, Spinal poisons, Cardiac poisons, Peripheral nerve poisons, Food poisons, House-hold poisons, Asphyxiant poisons, Drug dependence & Drug abuse. Reference: 1. Principles of Forensic Medicine, Apurba Nandy, 2002. 2. Essentials of Forensic Medicine, Bann, Polson C.J. Knight Bernard. 3. Forensic Medicine, P.V. Guharaj. 4. Gradwohl’s Legal Medicine, F.E. Camps. 5. Handbook of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, Dr. S.C. Basu. PAPER 2.3 CYBER CRIME Unit I Background: Definition of basic concepts of hardware, software, cyberspace, etc. Role of computers in modern life – Internet & its Implications – Electronic commerce. Cyber crime: Definition – History & Evolution – Types – Case Studies. Unit II Study of individual category of cyber crime Hacking – Introduction of virus – Denial of service – Cyber stalking – Pornography – Cyber terrorism – Theft of telecommunication services – Electronic funds transfer & money laundering. Unit III Case studies: USA – UK – India. Profile of cyber criminal. Investigation of cyber crime: Cyber forensics – Networks as a source of evidence – The experience in India. Unit IV Features of law relating to cyber crime: Current cyber crime statutes – Relevant provisions of Information Technology Act, 2000 relating to cyber crimes. Legal Issues regarding investigation & prosecution of cyber criminals. USA – Uk _ India. Council of Europe Convention of Cyber Crime, 2001. Unit V Prevention of cyber crime: Features of cyber security – firewalls cryptography – safe web browsing – The future scenario. PAPER 2.4 VICTIMOLOGY & HUMAN RIGHTS Unit I Victims: Concepts & concern, Historical development of Victimology: Meaning, definition of victim, National & International concern for victims of crime – World Society of Victimology – U.N. Declaration on Basic Principles of Justice for victims, 1998, Guide for Policy Makers, 1998. National Organization for Victim Assistance (NOVA), U.S.A. Amnesty International – Indian Society of Victimology (ISV). Unit II Patterns of Crime Victimization – Victims of traditional crime, victims of abuse of power, women victims – Dowry, Battered women, Rape & other kinds of sexual harassment – Child abuse. Trafficking in women & children, Crime victimization surveys. Unit III Impact of Victimization & Victim Assistance Programmes – Physical & financial impact – psychological injury & social cost – Secondary victimization from the criminal justice system & society. Victim assistance programmes – Victim participation in the Justice process – victim involvement in mediation & restorative justice – Victim compensation & restitution. Unit IV Role & responsibility of criminal justice professionals & others to victims. Police & victim assistance – Prosecutors & victim assistance, Role of Judiciary in Justice for victims. Creating awareness among the Criminal Justice Professionals & the public on the victim issues. Unit V Human Rights in Criminal Justice. Historical development of human rights. Universal declaration of Human Rights, 1948. The Protection of Human Rights under the Indian Criminal Justice Administration – Under the Constitution of India Fundamental Rights – Articles 14, 19, 20, 21, 22 & 32 – Under the Code of Criminal Procedure {Sections 50, 54, 56, 57, 58, 167(1) & (2), 300, 303, 304, 327, 436, 437 & 438} – Under the Evidence Act (24, 25, 26, 112A & B, 114 & 133). S.C./S.T. Protection against Atrocities Act, 1989. Reference: 1. Karmen, Andrew, 1984 Crime Victims, Brooks / Cole Publishing company, California. 2. Rajan, V.N., 1981, Victimology in India, Allied Publishers Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi. 3. Galaway, Burt & Hudson Joe, 1981, Perspectives on Crime Victims. 4. Chokalingam, K. 1985, Reading in Victimology, Raviraj Publications, Chennai.

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