M.Sc in Animal Biotechnology

Bharathiar University
In Coimbatore

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Important information

  • Master
  • Coimbatore

The objective of the course is to provide a concise and unifying approach to physical. chemistry, biochemistry and biophysics. It also provides the structure, function and interactions. of bio molecules, how biological processes occur at the molecular level and to understand these. processes with strong backgrounds in chemistry, biology, and physics.

Important information

Where and when

Starts Location
On request
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046., Tamil Nadu, India
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Frequent Asked Questions

· Requirements

B.Sc. Zoology B.Sc. Advanced Zoology B.Sc. Applied Zoology B.Sc. Life Sciences B.Sc. Animal Science and Biotechnology B.Sc. Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology B.Sc. Biotechnology B.Sc. Biochemistry B.Sc. Microbiology B.Sc. Genetics B.Sc. Bioinformatics B.Sc. Environmental Sciences B.Sc. Environmental Zoology B.V.Sc.

Course programme

The objective of the course is to provide a concise and unifying approach to physical
chemistry, biochemistry and biophysics. It also provides the structure, function and interactions
of bio molecules, how biological processes occur at the molecular level and to understand these
processes with strong backgrounds in chemistry, biology, and physics.

Unit - I
Structure of atom, molecules, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, hydrogen bond, Vander Vaal's forces,
Intermolecular forces, electrolytes, pH and buffer capacity in the cell environment.
Unit - II
Amino acids: Structure, classification, properties, isoelectric point and zwitter ions. Proteins:
Classification based on chemical structure, function and solubility; properties, primary,
secondary and tertiary, Helix, principles of isolation and purification, Synthesis of polypeptides.
Enzymes: Classification, Kinetics, Co-factors, Enzyme inhibition, Enzyme substrate
Unit - III
Nucleic acids: DNA structure and properties, DNA as a genetic material, DNA synthesis -
mechanism of replication (semi conservative and reverse transcription), nucleotides. Different
types of RNA: mRNA and rRNA.
Lipids: Classification, properties - saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - plant waxes, steroids,
cholesterol and lecithin.
Carbohydrates: Classification, structure and properties of functional groups.
Unit - IV
Bioenergetics: Laws of thermodynamics, concept of free energy, oxidation reduction (redox)
reactions. Energy coupling reactions, energy rich compounds, ATP cycle, standard free energy,
membrane potentials, and negative entropy changes in living systems, enzyme catalysis.
Unit - V
Analytical techniques: Principle and application of Chromatography (Paper, thin-layer, column
and GLC), Centrifugation (RPM and G, Ultra centrifugation), Spectroscopic techniques (UV,
visible spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, NMR, IR, fluorescence & atomic absorption),
Isotopes and their importance (GM counters & Scintillation counting).
Unit - I
Cell organization, Sub-cellular structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Synthesis and
sorting of plasma membrane. Chromatin structure and nucleosome concept, Organization and
function of genetic material, Gene paradox, Repetitive DNA, Satellite DNA, Overlapping genes,
Split genes, Pseudogenes. Chromatin, nuclear and mitochondrial genome organization,
Structures of DNA and RNA, Stereochemistry of bases and secondary structures. Genetic
structure analyses of eukaryotic genomes.
Evidence of basic targets, Enzymes, Mechanisms of DNA replication in eukaryotes. t-RNA, m-
RNA, r-RNA and hn-RNA structures and folding, Mechanisms in eukaryotes RNA splicing.
Ribosomes, Genetic code, General control of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, Posttranslational
modifications, Protein targeting.
Gene regulation in eukaryotes, Gene clustering, Mechanism of positive and negative control of
gene expression. Translational and transcriptional control of regulatory mechanism of gene
expression, Environmental effects on gene regulation.
Signaling at the cell surface, Types of signaling pathways that control gene activity, Integration
of signals and gene controls. Moving proteins into membranes and organelles, Vascular traffic,
secretion and endocytosis, Metabolism and movement of lipids.
Regulation of the Eukaryotic cell cycle, Cell birth, Lineage and cell death. Cancer/ oncogenes,
Cell markers, Cellular morphology, Primary and established cell lines, Kinetics of cell growth,
Genetics of cultured cells. Stem cell culture, embryonic stem cells and their applications. Cell
culture based vaccines. Somatic cell genetics.
Unit - I
Introduction- Scope and History of microbiology -Classification of bacteria, fungi, yeast and
virus. Structure and functions of bacteria and virus. Reproduction in bacteria - Transformation,
conjugation, transduction. Mapping in bacterial genomes.
Unit - II
Cultivation and control of microorganism - Methods of collection of sample - methods of
estimation of microorganism in soil, water and air - Isolation and identification of bacteria.
Methods of sterilization and disinfection - Microbial control - Physical and chemical -
techniques of pure culture - Method of cultivation of bacteria - Phases of growth .
Unit - III
Microbial Ecology: Distribution of microorganism in soil, water and air - Environmental
factors influencing the distribution of microorganism - Role of microorganisms in the cycling of
nutrients - Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur cycle.
Unit - IV
Food Microbiology: Sources, types incidence of microorganism in vegetables, meats, poultry,
seafood, milk and diary products - spoilage of food, fruits, vegetables, cereals, meat, poultry
egg, seafood, caned products - Factors influencing spoilage - Methods of detection of spoilage,
principles of food preservation and prevention of food spoilage.
Unit - V
Microbial Technology: Genetic engineering of food and additives - Single Cell Protein (SCP)
production - Production of organic acids (acetic acid), ethanol - Antibiotics - Microbial toxins -
methanogenesis -- Fermentation products.
Biochemistry and Biophysics
1. pH: Structure and operation of pH meter
2. To measure the pH in biological sample.
3. Preparation of buffers: Phosphate buffer and citrate buffer.
4. Chromatographic techniques:
a. Paper chromatographic techniques to separate amino acids.
b. Thin layer chromatographic technique to separate lipids.
c. Column chromatographic techniques to separate urinary pigments.
5. Colorimetric/Spectrophotometric estimation of the following biomolecules.
a. Total free amino acids (Ninhydrin reagent method)
b. Protein (Biuret and Lowry et al., 1951 method)
c. Total soluble carbohydrates (Anthrone reagent method)
d. Total cholesterol (Zlatkis et. al. method)
6. Electrophoresis (PAGE) - Demonstration.
Molecular Cell Biology
1. Principles of microscopy and optics*.
2. Cell size determination
3. Microtomy and photography*.
4. Mounting of polytene chromosomes.
5. Preparation of mitosis in Onion root tip.
6. Cell division in Grasshopper testis*.
7. Preparation of animal tissue culture medium using membrane filtration*.
8. Cell counting and cell viability using trypan blue dye exclusion assay
9. SDS - PAGE of protein from animals*.
* Practical by demonstration only.
1. Preparation and requirements of microbiology laboratory.
2. Preparation of Non-selective selective culture media.
3. Estimation of bacteria from soil and water using plate count method.
4. Observation of morphological characters of bacteria (temporary wet mount technique).
5. Staining methods: Preparation of smears for staining, simple staining, negative staining,
gram staining.
6. Control of microorganism: Physical methods (moist and dry heat) - Mechanical methods(sterilization and filtration).
History of Human Chromosome Research - Denver Conference (1940) - Chicago Conference
(1966) - Paris Conference (1971) - Nomenclature of Human Chromosome.
Identification of Human diploid chromosome - peripheral blood cultures - banding techniques -
G-band; Q-band; C-band; R-band - Identification of 23 pairs of Human chromosomes by band
Chromosomal syndromes: Autosomal syndromes - Sex chromosomal syndromes - Structural
chromosomal syndromes.
a) Prenatal diagnosis: Chorionic villi sampling - Foetoscopy, Ultrascopy - Amniocentesis. b)
Postnatal diagnosis: Peripheral blood leucocyte culture - Sister Chromatid Exchange - Fragile
site - Mitotic index. c) Genetic Counseling.
Hereditary forms of Cancer - Oncogenes and Cancer - Chromosomes and Cancer - Cancer and the
Unit - I
Recent Advances in insect biotechnology - genetic engineering and genomics.
Unit - II
Insect vectors and pathogens - Mosquito transmitted diseases and control - Insect parasites and
Unit - III
Biology of insect, viruses, bacteria, fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes and their use in
insect pest/vector control.
Unit - IV
Genetic improvement of natural enemies, Insect cell line, Botanical insecticides -
Neuroendocrinology- bioactive peptides.
Unit - V
Transgenic plants- role in insect control, Genetic control - Sterile (transgenic) Insect Technology

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