M.Sc in Animal Science

Bharathiar University
In Coimbatore

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Important information

  • Master
  • Coimbatore
  • Duration:
    2 Years
Description

The objective of the course is to provide a concise and unifying approach to physical. chemistry, biochemistry and biophysics. It also provides the structure, function and interactions. of bio molecules, how biological processes occur at the molecular level and to understand these. processes with strong backgrounds in chemistry, biology, and physics.

Important information
Venues

Where and when

Starts Location
On request
Coimbatore
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046., Tamil Nadu, India
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Frequent Asked Questions

· Requirements

B.Sc. Zoology B.Sc. Advanced Zoology B.Sc. Applied Zoology B.Sc. Animal Science and Biotechnology B.Sc. Advanced Zoology and Biotechnology B.Sc. Life Sciences

Course programme

The objective of the course is to provide a concise and unifying approach to physical
chemistry, biochemistry and biophysics. It also provides the structure, function and interactions
of bio molecules, how biological processes occur at the molecular level and to understand these
processes with strong backgrounds in chemistry, biology, and physics.

Unit - I
Structure of atom, molecules, ionic bonds, covalent bonds, hydrogen bond, Vander Vaal's forces,
Intermolecular forces, electrolytes, pH and buffer capacity in the cell environment.
Unit - II
Amino acids: Structure, classification, properties, isoelectric point and zwitter ions. Proteins:
Classification based on chemical structure, function and solubility; properties, primary,
secondary and tertiary, Helix, principles of isolation and purification, Synthesis of polypeptides.
Enzymes: Classification, Kinetics, Co-factors, Enzyme inhibition, Enzyme substrate
compounds.
Unit - III
Nucleic acids: DNA structure and properties, DNA as a genetic material, DNA synthesis -
mechanism of replication (semi conservative and reverse transcription), nucleotides. Different
types of RNA: mRNA and rRNA.
Lipids: Classification, properties - saturated and unsaturated fatty acids - plant waxes, steroids,
cholesterol and lecithin.
Carbohydrates: Classification, structure and properties of functional groups.
Unit - IV
Bioenergetics: Laws of thermodynamics, concept of free energy, oxidation reduction (redox)
reactions. Energy coupling reactions, energy rich compounds, ATP cycle, standard free energy,
membrane potentials, and negative entropy changes in living systems, enzyme catalysis.
Unit - V
Analytical techniques: Principle and application of Chromatography (Paper, thin-layer, column
and GLC), Centrifugation (RPM and G, Ultra centrifugation), Spectroscopic techniques (UV,
visible spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography, NMR, IR, fluorescence & atomic absorption),
Isotopes and their importance (GM counters & Scintillation counting).
Core - II - 13B MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY
Unit - I
Cell organization, Sub-cellular structures of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Synthesis and
sorting of plasma membrane. Chromatin structure and nucleosome concept, Organization and
function of genetic material, Gene paradox, Repetitive DNA, Satellite DNA, Overlapping genes,
Split genes, Pseudogenes. Chromatin, nuclear and mitochondrial genome organization,
Structures of DNA and RNA, Stereochemistry of bases and secondary structures. Genetic
structure analyses of eukaryotic genomes.
Unit-II
Evidence of basic targets, Enzymes, Mechanisms of DNA replication in eukaryotes. t-RNA, m-
RNA, r-RNA and hn-RNA structures and folding, Mechanisms in eukaryotes RNA splicing.
Ribosomes, Genetic code, General control of DNA, RNA and protein synthesis, Posttranslational
modifications, Protein targeting.
Unit-III
Gene regulation in eukaryotes, Gene clustering, Mechanism of positive and negative control of
gene expression. Translational and transcriptional control of regulatory mechanism of gene
expression, Environmental effects on gene regulation.
Unit-IV
Signaling at the cell surface, Types of signaling pathways that control gene activity, Integration
of signals and gene controls. Moving proteins into membranes and organelles, Vascular traffic,
secretion and endocytosis, Metabolism and movement of lipids.
Unit-V
Regulation of the Eukaryotic cell cycle, Cell birth, Lineage and cell death. Cancer/ oncogenes,
Cell markers, Cellular morphology, Primary and established cell lines, Kinetics of cell growth,
Genetics of cultured cells. Stem cell culture, embryonic stem cells and their applications. Cell
culture based vaccines. Somatic cell genetics.
Core - III - 13C MICROBIOLOGY
Unit - I
Introduction- Scope and History of microbiology -Classification of bacteria, fungi, yeast and
virus. Structure and functions of bacteria and virus. Reproduction in bacteria - Transformation,
conjugation, transduction. Mapping in bacterial genomes.
Unit - II
Cultivation and control of microorganism - Methods of collection of sample - methods of
estimation of microorganism in soil, water and air - Isolation and identification of bacteria.Methods of sterilization and disinfection - Microbial control - Physical and chemical -
techniques of pure culture - Method of cultivation of bacteria - Phases of growth .
Unit - III
Microbial Ecology: Distribution of microorganism in soil, water and air - Environmental
factors influencing the distribution of microorganism - Role of microorganisms in the cycling of
nutrients - Carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulphur cycle.
Unit - IV
Food Microbiology: Sources, types incidence of microorganism in vegetables, meats, poultry,
seafood, milk and diary products - spoilage of food, fruits, vegetables, cereals, meat, poultry
egg, seafood, caned products - Factors influencing spoilage - Methods of detection of spoilage,
principles of food preservation and prevention of food spoilage.
Unit - V
Microbial Technology: Genetic engineering of food and additives - Single Cell Protein (SCP)
production - Production of organic acids (acetic acid), ethanol - Antibiotics - Microbial toxins -
methanogenesis -- Fermentation products.
Core Practical - 1 : 13P BIOCHEMISTRY AND BIOPHYSICS, MOLECULAR
CELL BIOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY
Biochemistry and Biophysics
1. pH: Structure and operation of pH meter
2. To measure the pH in biological sample.
3. Preparation of buffers: Phosphate buffer and citrate buffer.
4. Chromatographic techniques:
a. Paper chromatographic techniques to separate amino acids.
b. Thin layer chromatographic technique to separate lipids.
c. Column chromatographic techniques to separate urinary pigments.
5. Colorimetric/Spectrophotometric estimation of the following biomolecules.
a. Total free amino acids (Ninhydrin reagent method)
b. Protein (Biuret and Lowry et al., 1951 method)
c. Total soluble carbohydrates (Anthrone reagent method)
d. Total cholesterol (Zlatkis et. al. method)
6. Electrophoresis (PAGE) - Demonstration.
Molecular Cell Biology
1. Principles of microscopy and optics*.
2. Cell size determination
3. Microtomy and photography*.
4. Mounting of polytene chromosomes.
5. Preparation of mitosis in Onion root tip.
6. Cell division in Grasshopper testis*.
7. Preparation of animal tissue culture medium using membrane filtration*.
8. Cell counting and cell viability using trypan blue dye exclusion assay
9. SDS - PAGE of protein from animals*.
* Practical by demonstration only.
Microbiology
1. Preparation and requirements of microbiology laboratory.
2. Preparation of Non-selective selective culture media.
3. Estimation of bacteria from soil and water using plate count method.
4. Observation of morphological characters of bacteria (temporary wet mount technique).
5. Staining methods: Preparation of smears for staining, simple staining, negative staining,
gram staining.
6. Control of microorganism: Physical methods (moist and dry heat) - Mechanical methods
(sterilization and filtration).
Elective - I - 1EA AN INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN CYTOGENETICS
Unit-I
History of Human Chromosome Research - Denver Conference (1940) - Chicago Conference
(1966) - Paris Conference (1971) - Nomenclature of Human Chromosome.
Unit-II
Identification of Human diploid chromosome - peripheral blood cultures - banding techniques -
G-band; Q-band; C-band; R-band - Identification of 23 pairs of Human chromosomes by band
position.
Unit-III
Chromosomal syndromes: Autosomal syndromes - Sex chromosomal syndromes - Structural
chromosomal syndromes.
Unit-IV
a) Prenatal diagnosis: Chorionic villi sampling - Foetoscopy, Ultrascopy - Amniocentesis. b)
Postnatal diagnosis: Peripheral blood leucocyte culture - Sister Chromatid Exchange - Fragile
site - Mitotic index. c) Genetic Counseling.
Unit-V
Hereditary forms of Cancer - Oncogenes and Cancer - Chromosomes and Cancer - Cancer and the
environment.
Unit - I
Recent Advances in insect biotechnology - genetic engineering and genomics.
Unit - II
Insect vectors and pathogens - Mosquito transmitted diseases and control - Insect parasites and
parasitoids.Unit - III
Biology of insect, viruses, bacteria, fungi and entomopathogenic nematodes and their use in
insect pest/vector control.
Unit - IV
Genetic improvement of natural enemies, Insect cell line, Botanical insecticides -
Neuroendocrinology- bioactive peptides.
Unit - V
Transgenic plants- role in insect control, Genetic control - Sterile (transgenic) Insect Technology
(SIT).
Diploma - I - 1LA EVOLUTION AND BIOGEOGRAPHY
Unit - I:
Geological time scales, fossils and fossilization, fossil histories of Invertebrates and Vertebrates.
Unit - II:
Origin of life; theories of evolution; Neo-Lamarckism; Neo-Darwinism, micro, macro and mega
evolution; morphological, taxonomical rates of evolution.
Unit - III:
Zoogeographical animal distribution, barriers, significance of island fauna, isolation and
isolating mechanisms - race formation; selection natural, artificial and sexual.
Unit - IV:
Trends in Evolution channelisation of selection - mechanism of evolution. Adaptations and Coadaptations;
adaptive radiations and non-adaptive characters in biology.
Unit - V:
Genetic variations - classification and origin; genetic drift mutation; Genetic assimilation and
homeostasis; non-genetic variation - age, seasonal, cast density, dependent, ecological
polymorphism, mimicry and animal colorations.Core - IV - 23A ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
This study helps in understanding how the body functions adapts with respect to its
external and internal environment, related to nervous integration, sensation, metabolism and
reproduction.
Unit -I
Locomotion and Nutrition: Types of muscles - Ultra-structure - Mechanism of contraction of
skeletal muscles - Nervous control of muscles. Nutritive requirements - General. Organization
of alimentary canal - Role of salivary glands, liver, pancreas and intestinal glands in digestion.
Unit - II
Digestion and Excretion: Absorption of digested food-hormonal control of digestion -
Introduction to intermediate metabolism -Structure of mammalian kidney - Urine formation -
acid base regulatory mechanisms; endocrine regulation of water and mineral balance.
Unit - III
Circulation and Respiration: Composition of blood, blood groups in man, coagulation -
Structure of mammalian heart, open and closed system of circulation, blood pressure and its
regulation.
Unit - IV
Nervous integration and sense Organs: Organization of Nervous system - nerve conduction -
synapse - neurotransmitters - nervous co-ordination - coding information to sensory organs -
Chemoreceptor - Mechanoreceptor - Thermoreceptor - Photoreceptor.
Unit - V
Reproduction: Functional morphology of reproductive organs, gametogenesis,
parthenogenesis, reproductive cycles - Pheromones.
Core - V - 23B ENDOCRINOLOGY
The study of hormones and their influence on body metabolisms plays important role in
every of medicine. Metabolic processes are involved in formation, maturation and function of
body tissues and in pathology of many diseases.
Unit - I
Nature, function and classification of hormones - Feedback control of hormone secretion -
Organisation and functions of neuroendocrine systems- Hypothalamo- hypophyseal interactions-
Bioactive peptides.
Unit - II
Thyroid gland - Structure, function and biosynthesis of thyroid hormone - Parathyroid -
Structure and PTH - Calcitonin - Role of hormones in calcium and phosphate metabolism.
Unit - III
Gastrointestinal hormones - their secretion, control and function - Insulin and glucagons -
Adrenal hormones and Stress management - Catecholamines as emergency hormones- their role
in the regulation of carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolisms.
Unit - IV
Adrenal gland - Structure and role played its hormones in glucose metabolism - Aldosterone and
the rennin- angiotensin system - Pineal gland- structure and its influence on reproduction and
pigmentation - Thymus gland - Structure and thymic hormones - their functions in brief.
Unit - V
Steroid hormone biosynthesis in the ovary and testis - Hormonal regulation of ovarian cycles in
mammals - Folliculogenesis, ovulation, corpus luteum formation and regression - Hormones in
pregnancy and lactation. Gonadal steroid action on spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis - Role
of hormones in sex accessory gland growth and functions.
Core - VI - 23C EXPERIMENTAL EMBRYOLOGY
Experimental embryology is an experimental science, which provides understanding of
the processes of early embryonic development, to analyze the mechanisms of development by
experimental manipulation of developing embryos and to review current methodologies for
conducting research in the field of embryology. It also emphasizes on current experimental
approaches utilized in research of normal and abnormal development of the mammalian embryo.
Unit -I
Introduction and scope - Gametogenesis: Spermatogenesis: Origin of Primordial germ cells
- Differentiation of spermatozoa - structure and motility of sperm - egg activation - acrosomal
reaction. Oogenesis: Development of Oocytes - types of eggs - Biochemical changes during
Oogenesis.
Unit - II
Fertilization process: Activation of sperm and egg- interaction of sperm and egg - Sequence of
events in sperm entry - Egg surface changes. Post-fertilization changes: changes in the
organisation of the egg cytoplasm caused by fertilization.
Unit - III
Cleavage: Cell division and chemical changes during cleavage - pattern of cleavage -
Distribution of cytoplasmic substances in the egg - role of egg cortex - morphogenetic gradient
in the egg cytoplasm. Gastrulation: Principles and patterns of gastrulation - Fate map.
Unit - IV
Organizer: Spemann's primary organizer - analysis of nature and mechanism of induction;
Organogenesis: Cellular interaction - differentiation and organogeny. Embryonic adaptation:
Extra embryonic membrane structure in Reptiles and Birds. Placenta: Classification, structure
and physiology.
Unit - V
Post embryonic developmental events: Metamorphosis (Insects and amphibians);
Regeneration in various animals. Asexual reproduction: Occurrence and forms of asexual
reproduction. Cryo-preservation of gametes and embryos - in-vitro fertilization and embryo
transfer - sperm banking - Fertility control and regulation.
Core Practical - II - 23D ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY, ENDOCRINOLOGY AND
EXPERIMENTAL EMBRYOLOGY
Animal Physiology
1. Influence of pH on salivary amylase activity.
2. Biochemical analysis (Qualitative) - carbohydrate, proteins and fats.
3. Estimation of haemoglobin (Cyanmethemoglobin method), RBC and WBC.
4. Estimation of glucose (O-toludine method)
5. Models: Stomach, Eye, Ear, Liver, Brain, Heart and Kidney.
Endocrinology
1. Spotters: Transverse section of Pituitary, Thyroid, Pancreas, Adrenal, Thymus,
Prostrate gland, Vas deferens, Seminal vesicles, Ovary and Testis.
2. Estimation of urea and uric acid.
3. Hormone assays: Urinary 17 Ketosteroids. Blood glucose - Oral Glucose Tolerance
Test.
Experimental Embryology
1. Spotters :
a) Oogenesis, Spermatogenesis
b) Frog: Four cell stage, Late cleavage, Blastula, Gastrula, Gastrula yolk plug stage,
Neural fold, Neural plate, Neural tube,
Tadpole - 4mm stage, 7mm stage, 11mm stage.
c) Chick: 13 Hours stage, 16 Hours stage, 24 Hours stage, 33 Hours stage,
36 Hours stage, 48 Hours stage, 56 Hours stage, 72 Hours stage, 96 Hours stage.
2. Mounting of the blastoderm of chick
3. Serial sections of chick embryo.
Elective - II - 2EA GLOBAL WARMING - ANIMAL MIGRATION AND
BEHAVIOUR
Unit - I
Introduction to global warming: Basics of Green house gases -- Climatic change and its
Significance and Causes - Impact of global warming on eco- system - Fossil fuel in Global
warming- present and future trends.
Unit - II
Climatic change: Acid rain-ozone depletion-Green house effect -forest fire-GIS, RS and its
application.
Unit - III
Impact on Biodiversity: Behavioral Adaptation - Threats to biodiversity - IPPC and migration
of species -biodiversity of land, aquatic and polar ecosystem - Climate change Human Health.
Unit - IV
Green house gases - impact behavior impact behavior: Transgenic Plants and behavior of
insects - Prey Predator and parasitoid system - Climate change and Vector prevalence - Vector
Borne diseases - Carbon sequestration.
Unit - V
Conservation and management: Threatened and Endangered Species - wild animals and plants
- Global conservation organizations -Deforestation and Defaunation - integrated conservation strategies.
SUPPORTIVE - II - 2GS CRUSTACEAN AQUACULTURE AND TECHNOLOGY
Unit-I
Importance of fisheries and aquaculture - Current issues regarding sustainability of aquaculture -
Ecological and social aspects of aquaculture development - Nutritional value of crustaceans as
food.
Unit-II
Taxonomy of crustaceans - Live feeds (Algae and algal culture, Micro-invertebrate culture
(Rotifers, Artemia, Copepod etc.) - Artificial feeds - Aquaculture and Techniques (semiintensive,
intensive, hyper-intensive).
Unit-III
Brooding (selective breeding, "specific pathogen free") - The hatchery technology and prawn
seed production.
Unit-IV
Culture and Grow-out technology for commercially important crustaceans: freshwater prawns,
marine shrimps, freshwater crayfish, lobsters, and crabs.
Unit-V
Nutritional requirement and feeding strategies - Water quality management and maintenance of
sanitation - Pathology and quarantine - Post-harvest handling and marketing.
Diploma Paper - II - 2LA WILDLIFE BIOLOGY AND CONSERVATION
Unit - I
Biogeography of India and patterns and distribution of ecosystems, ecological succession, biotic
and abiotic factors of an ecosystem. Taxonomy of common Indian wild animals of reptilia, aves
and mammalia.
Unit - II
Natural history of wild life; resting behaviour; Food and feeding: nutritional and reproductive
strategies of common wild animals such as the calotes, poisonous and non-poisonous land and
water snakes; crocodiles, birds of prey and other insectivorous, frugivorous, nectivorous and
seed feeding birds, wild mammals of India.
Unit - III
Population ecology and growth; population patterns, habits, habitats, habitat selection; preypredator
relationship.
Unit - IV
Social behaviour such as aggregation, sexual behaviour, migration and territorial behaviour in
birds and mammals; means of dispersal and barriers of dispersal, group size and spacing carrying
capacity.
Unit - V
Wild life management; Tropic structure of wildlife, common diseases of wildlife; wild life
sanitation, management of wildlife, Zoo planning and management and tourism development in
wild life sanctuaries.
Core - VII - 33A MOLECULAR GENETICS
Unit - I
Fundamentals of genes and chromosomes - DNA structure and function - Chromosome
structure and function - Gene in pedigree.
Unit - II
Fundamentals of DNA cloning and molecular hybridization: Cell based BNA cloning - DNA
hybridization assays - PCR based DNA cloning and DNA analyses.
Unit - III
Features of the human Genome: Organization and expression of the human genome - Human
multigene families and repetitive DNA - Footprints of evolution - Mutation and instability of
human DNA.
Unit - IV
Mapping of the human genome: Physical mapping - Genetic mapping - The human genome
project.
Unit - V
Dissecting and manipulating genes: Studying human gene structure and function and creating
animal models of disease - Gene theory and other molecular genetic based therapeutic
approaches.
Core - VIII- 33B IMMUNOLOGY
Unit - I
Outlines of Immunology: Basics of Immunity - Types of Immunity - Structure and Types of
Immune system - Lymphoid organs.
Unit - II
Antigens, Antibiotics and Complements: Antigens - Antibody reaction - Immunoglobulinstructure
of Immunoglobulin - Structure, function and biological properties of Immunoglobulin
classes - Salient features and Biosynthesis of Complement.
Unit - III
Immunopathology: Hypersensitivity - Types of hypersensitivity - Major Histocompatibility
Complex (MHC) and its significance.
Unit - IV
Immunological disorders: Immunodeficiency diseases - Transplantation immunology - Types
of graft - Mechanism of allograft rejection.
Unit - V: Immunotechnology
Active immunization - Passive immunization - Principles and Methods of vaccine preparation -
Immunological techniques - RIA, ELISA, Immunocytochemistry and Immunoblotting.


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