M.Sc. Biosciences

Jamia Milia Islamia
In New Delhi

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  • Master
  • New delhi
Description

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Starts Location
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New Delhi
Jamia Nagar, New Delhi, Delhi, India
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Course programme

The Jamia Milia Islamia offers M.Sc. Biosciences course to its students. The course structure for it is as follows:

Immunology
Biochemistry
Molecular Genetics
Biophysics & Bioinformatics
Molecular Biology of Cell
Microbiology
Plant Physiology
Genome Biology
Physical Chemistry of Proteins and Enzymes
Environmental Biology
Animal Physiology


Unit I
1. Introduction Phylogeny of Immune System ; Innate and Acquired System; Clonal nature of Immune Response.
2. Organisation and structure of lymphoid organs.
3. Cells of the Immune system: Hematopoiesis and differentiation, Lymphocyte traffic, T- lymphocytes and B- lymphocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic cells, Natural killer and Lymphokine activated killer cells , Eosinophils, Neutrophils, Basophils and Mast Cells.
4. B-cells and T-cell receptors, generation of diversity.

Unit II
1. Nature and biology of antigens.
2. Antibody generation, structure and function.
3. Antigen- antibody interactions.
4. Monoclonal antibodies and Hybridoma technology, ELISA and RIA, Flourescence and Spectral methods used in Immunology.
5. Major histocompatibility complex.

Unit III
1. The Complement System.
2. Regulation of Immune Response—Antigen processing and presentation, generation of humoral and cellular immune responses. Activation of B- and T- lymphocytes. Cytokines and their role in immune regulation. T- cell regulation, MHC restriction.
3. Cell-mediated cytotoxicity: Mechanism of T-cell and NK cell mediated cytotoxicity, Macrophage mediated cytotoxicity.

Unit IV
1. Immunological tolerance and immunosuppression.
2. Hypersensitivity.
3. Autoimmunity

Unit V
1. Transplantation
2. Tumor immunology.
3. AIDS and other immunodeficiencies.

Unit I : Vitamins
Vitamins: their coenzyme forms, biochemical function, important sources, recommended dietary allowance and deficiency symptoms.

Unit II : Carbohydrate Metabolism
Principles of bioenergetics, Glycolysis: its stages, enzymatic steps, energetics, balance sheet and regulation. Entry of important monoscaccharides and disaccharides in glycolysis HMP pathway, Glycogenolysis, PDH reaction, Tricarboxylic acid cycle: kreb’s discovery, enzymes and their location, reactions, isoltopic tests, amphibolic nature, energetics and regulation, gluconeogenesis from amino acids and TCA cycle intermediates, synthesis of glycogen and important disaccharides, Hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

Unit III : Lipid Metabolism
Mobilization of lipids, Oxidation of lipids: beta oxidation. Oxidation of unsaturated and odd chain fatty acids, energetics, Formation and oxidation of ketone bodies. Biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids: carbon sources, acetyl CoA carboylasce and reactions of Fatty acid synthase, synthesis of odd chain and unsaturated fatty acids. Triacyle glycerol and phosphoglycerides. Biosynthesis of cholesterol and its regulation.

Unit IV : Amino acid Metabolism
Amino acid oxidation: flow sheet, deamination and transamination reactions, alpha ketoglutorate, Succinate, fumarate and oxaloacetate pathways of amino acid oxidation. Metabloic fates of amino groups, role of glutamate and glutamine, urea-cycle: reactions and regulation. Biosynthesis of standard essential and non essential amino acids, regulation of amino acid biosynthesis, genetic defects in amino acid metabolism.

Unit V : Nucleotide Metabolism
Degradation of purine & pyrimidine nucleotides and its regulation. Biosynthesis of purine & pyrimidine nucleotides, de-novo pathway, salvage, reaction of ribonucleotide reductase and its regulation, purine nucleotide cycle. Genetic defects in nucleotide metabolism, Enzymes of nucleotide metabolism as sites for chemotherapy.

Unit I: Structure and Replication of Nucleic Acids
Primary and Secondary structure of Nucleic Acids, Pioneering experiments leading to the development of modern genetics, Structure of DNA and the Gene, Fine structure of the gene. Gene-protein relationship, DNA Replication models of DNA replication, semiconservative replication, organization of the replicating chromosome, mechanism of replication, Enzymes involved in replication.

Unit II: Genome in Flux
Recombination in bacteria and their viruses, Conjugation and transformation, sex factors, high frequency recombination strains, Generalized and Specialized transduction, Gene conversion and Genetic mapping, Plasmids, General homologous recombination. Site specific recombination, Transposable elements, Mechanism of transposition.

Unit III: Mutation and DNA Repair
The molecular basis of gene mutation, Consequences of mutations for protein structure, Induction of mutations in prokaryotes. Chemical mutagenesis in higher organisms, Repair of DNA damage: Photoreactivation, excision, post replication and SOS repair mechanisms, Factors determining sensitivity to DNA –damaging agents, Repair of DNA damages in higher organisms.

Unit IV: Expression of Genetic Information
Transcription of DNA: RNA polymerase, sigma factor, Initiation, chain elongation, termination, posts transcriptional modifications, and mRNA and antibiotics affecting transcription. The Genetic Code: evolution of the code, degenerate triplet code, Protein synthesis: t-RNA as adapter molecule, ribosome structure, ribosomal genes. Initiation, elongation and termination of protein synthesis, Modifications of protein synthesis, Inhibitors of protein synthesis.

Unit V: Regulation of Gene Function
Enzyme induction and repression, The lac operon: negative control, catabolic repression of the lac operon: positive control, Positive control with superimposed negative control, The arabinose operon, Negative control with superimposed attenuation: the tryptophan genes. The lambda phage: a complex of operons. Antisense RNA.

Unit VI: Recombinant DNA Technology
Early discoveries, the beginning of recombinant DNA technology, Restriction endonucleases, Joining DNA molecules, Restriction mapping vectors, cloning, selection of recombinant clones, DNA Sequencing, gene probes, other applications of recombinant DNA technology.

Unit VII: Eukaryotic Genome Organization
Structure of chromatin, packaging of DNA, coding and non coding sequences, satellite DNA Transportation in eukaryotes RNA processing (capping, polyadenylation, introns and exons), Ribonucleoproteins, structure of mRNA translational modification.

UNIT VIII
The law of DNA constancy and C value paradox; Numerical and structural changes in chromosomes; Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutations and their role in evolution; Environmental mutagenesis and toxicity testing; Population genitics. Polyploidy : Genetic variability.

Unit I: Membrane Biophysics
Membrane structrue, passive ion transport, ion channels, genesis of membrane potential in nerve & membrane, Nerst & Goldman equation, Theory of excitation.
recording instruments used in measuring membrane potential.

Unit II: Thermodynamics & Hydrodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics Entropy, Enthalpy, Living Body as thermodynamics system, Concept of closed system & open system.Thermodynamic equilibrium & physiological steady state Osmosis, Permeability, viscosity, thermoregulation. Principles of hydrodynamics poise eqn.

Unit III: Radiation Biophysics
Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations, Free radicals, Ion pairs, radiation units and dosimetry. Direct and indirect radiation action, radiation on proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, cell and whole organisms, Genetic effect of radiation. Radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics, protection from radiation.

Unit IV: Molecular Biophysics
X-ray diffraction studies and NMR studies on mono and oligo-nucleotides, DNA polymorphism, parameters for a-, B-,C-, D-, and Z-DNA. Definitions of roll, tilt and propeller twist. Interaction of DNA with protein, drugs, dyes and carcinogens.

Unit I: Membrane Biophysics
Membrane structrue, passive ion transport, ion channels, genesis of membrane potential in nerve & membrane, Nerst & Goldman equation, Theory of excitation.
recording instruments used in measuring membrane potential.

Unit II: Thermodynamics & Hydrodynamics
Laws of thermodynamics Entropy, Enthalpy, Living Body as thermodynamics system, Concept of closed system & open system.Thermodynamic equilibrium & physiological steady state Osmosis, Permeability, viscosity, thermoregulation. Principles of hydrodynamics poise eqn.

Unit III: Radiation Biophysics
Ionizing and non-ionizing radiations, Free radicals, Ion pairs, radiation units and dosimetry. Direct and indirect radiation action, radiation on proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, cell and whole organisms, Genetic effect of radiation. Radiation in diagnosis and therapeutics, protection from radiation.

Unit IV: Molecular Biophysics
X-ray diffraction studies and NMR studies on mono and oligo-nucleotides, DNA polymorphism, parameters for a-, B-,C-, D-, and Z-DNA. Definitions of roll, tilt and propeller twist. Interaction of DNA with protein, drugs, dyes and carcinogens.


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