M.Sc in Herbal ScienceBharathiar University
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Frequent Asked Questions
A candidate who has passed the Undergraduate Degree Examination in Botany / Plant Biology and Plant Biotechnology / Plant Science / Herbal Science / Biology as main subject of study of this University or an examination of some other University accepted by the syndicate as equivalent shall be eligible for admission to the Master Degree in Plant Science / Botany / Herbal science of this University.
PAPER-1: INTRODUCTION TO HERBAL SCIENCE
Historical background, present status, scope of Medicinal botany - Indigenous medical
system- bioprospecting, indigenous knowledge systems, Ayurveda, Siddha, unnani,
Homeopathy, Tibetan, Folkore medicines, Systems of medicine. Need to preserve
Role of Botanists in rediscovery of natural medicine - reasons for popularity of herbal
remedies; Pharmacognosy, Aromatherapy and cosmetology with special reference to
recent literature. CSIR wealth of India & Pharmacopoeia
Taxonomic structure, Classification of plants (general outline), major taxonomic groups
(algae, fungi, bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms) and their medicinal uses,
Taxonomic literature, Nomenclature
Plant identification strategies, Concept of systematics, taxonomy and its significance,
Principles of taxonomy and phylogeny of angiosperm, current systems of classification
(with one example)
Taxonomic evidences: Application of information from interrelated subjects:
a. Exomorphic characters
b. Endomorphic characters: Anatomical, Cytological, Palynological &
c. Physico - chemical characters: Ash content extractive values, qualities chemical
analysis quantitative chemical analysis
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO2
PAPER-2: MICROBIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND HUMAN BODY
Microbial diversity [Bacteria, Fungi, Algae, Viruses and Protozoa]-a general account,
classification, growth and Reproduction. Microbiological Media: Types, preparation,
methods of sterilization; enumeration of microorganisms in soil, water and air; isolation
of microorganisms from environment and infected tissue; Techniques of pure culture,
maintenance and preservation; Staining; stains and dyes, types of staining.
Microbial interaction; Mutualism, commensalisms, antagonism and parasitism; MPN and
membrane filtration; Quantification techniques; Fermenter, batch fermentation vs,
continuous fermentation, Industrial production of enzymes (cellulose, amylase and
protease), amino acids (glutamic acid and L-Lysine), and organic acids (lactic acid and
Immune system, cell types involved in defense mechanisms of the body, disease
susceptibility/resistance and genetic control of the immune response. Immunization
strategies; Cytokines, characteristics and function
Monoclonal antibody production; Immunity; Tumor Immunity; Immunity to Bacteria;
Immunity to viruses; Transplantation Immunity; Immunity to Parasites; Autoimmunity;
Strategies of vaccine development
Human body maintenance systems: digestion, respiration, circulation, and excretion.
Communication and regulatory systems: nerve system, senses, and hormones. Support
systems: skeletal and muscular system
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO3
PAPER-3: PRACTICALS: INTRODUCTION TO HERBAL SCIENCE;
MICROBIOLOGY, IMMUNOLOGY AND HUMAN BODY
(1) Exomorphic features of the following medicinal plants:
Algae - Spirulina, chlorella, Laminaria, Gracilaria,
Fungi - Penicillium, Mushrooms, Ganoderma
Pteridophyta - Lycopodium, Ophioglassum, Equisetum, Adiantum
Gymnoperms - Ephidra, Taxus
(A) Roots - Asparagus recemosus, Vettiver zizanoides
(B) Rhizome - Zinzerber officinale, Curcuma domestica, Alpinia galangal, Acorus
(C) Bark - Chinnamomum, Cinchona, Andrographis paniculata, Indigofera tinctoria
(D) Twigs - Solanum trilobatum, S. nigrum, Coccinia indica, Melothria
(E) Leaves - Adhatoda, Ocimum sanctum, Aegle marmelos, Piper betel, Nicotiana,
(F) Flowers - Crocus sativus, Syzygium caryophyllatum, Hibiscuss rosasinensis,
(G) Fruits - Fennel, Cumin, Pepper, Long pepper, Papaya, Poppy,
(H) Seeds - Nuxvomica, Syzygium cumini, Trigonella,
(2) Identification of bacteria, fungi, algae, and protozoa based on their characteristic
(3) Preparation of media - natural, synthetic and special media.
(4) Sterilization methods - filtration, autoclaving, hot-air oven.
(5) Disinfection techniques in the laboratory
(6) Enumeration of microorganisms from the given sample.
(7) Isolation of pathogens from infected tissue
(8) Pure culture techniques of microbes
(9) Maintenance and Preservation of cultures
(10) Growth Curve of E. coli.
(11) Staining - simple and differential
(12) Study of antagonism
(13) Microbial fermentation - alcohol production
(15) Physicochemical studies of any leaf with reference to ash content and extractive
value. (water, ethanol, acetone)
(16) Food additives - Allium sativum, Curcuma longa, Beta vulgaris, Bixa orelana,
(17) Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of sugar and NaCl.
(18) Detection of liver disorder by means of bilirubin.
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO4
PAPER-4: PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Preparation of herbarium specifications - Use of flora and keys of plant identification-
Microtomy and advanced histological techniques as applied to pharmacognostical
specimen - Quantitative microscopy as applied to drug evaluation and pollen grain
analysis - Chemotaxonomy of plants and distribution of certain chemotaxonomical
group of constituents in plant kingdom like alkaloids, glycosides and terpenoids.
Agrotechnology of medicinal plants - Ecotypic - Phenotypic and Genotypic variability
affecting phytopharmaceuticals - Standardization and quality procedures for the assay of
plant products - Prospects and economics of medicinal and aromatic plants in India.
Introduction - techniques of initiation and maintenance of various types of cultures.
Immobilized cell techniques - Biotransformation studies including recent developments
in Production of biological active constituents in static - Suspension and hairy root
cultures - Bioreactors for production of biological active constituents and other
applications of plant tissue culture techniques.
Recent advances in the field of Pharmacognosy with special reference to anticancer -
Antidiabetic - Antiinflammatory - Hepatoprotective - Adaptogenic and
immunomodulating drugs of plant origin - Plant sweetners - Skin irritants and
sensitizing agents from plant products of Medicinal importance
General methods of phytochemical & biological screening - Natural sources - extraction
- Purification and isolation of Plant constituents - Alkaloids - Glycosides - Volatile oils
- Study of some herbal formulation as drug and cosmetics.
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO5
PAPER-5: PHARMOCOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
PHARMACOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES: Routes of drug administration, absorption,
distribution. Metabolism and excretion of drugs. Drug tolerance, drug resistance, drug
dependence, drug habituation, synergism and antagonism in drug combination.
SYSTEMIC PHARMACOLOGY: Drugs acting on; Autonomic nervous system,
Central nervous system, kidney function and Cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal and
respiratory system, blood and blood forming organs, Hormones
EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY: Experimental methodologies involved in the
discovery of drugs (in vivo, in vitro, ex vivo). Animal handling and animal care.
Restraining and blood collecting methods. Drug screening methods involved in the
evaluation of anti-ulcer, antidepressant, antianginal, antihypertensive, antiarrhythmic,
antidiabetic, anticataract, anti-platelet, anticancer, antiinflammatory, antidiarrhoeal,
antiepileptic, analgesic, antithyroid, antipyretic, antiglaucoma, antihyperlipidemic
antiasthmatics drugs and cough suppressants. Drug screening methods used in screening
antifungal, antihelminthic, antibacterial, antiviral agents
TOXICOLOGY: Basic concepts in toxicology: Introduction to toxicology and its
subdivisions, Types of adverse drug reaction, Risk assessment and toxicity testing,
Nonmetalic environmental toxicants, Chelators and heavy metal intoxication. General
mechanisms of toxin action. Allergic reactions to drugs.
PHARMACOKINETICS: Basics of pharmacokinetics, calculation of pharmacokinetic
estimates (C-max, Tmax, T1/2, AUC(0-n),
AUC(0-Μ), Vd, Ke, Ka etc.) Compartment models used in pharmacokinetics (oral and
intravenous). Compartment fitting (one comp & two comp). Pharmcodynamic
/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) correlation.
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO6
PAPER-6 : PRACTICALS: PHARMACOGNOSY AND PHYTOCHEMISTRY;
PHARMACOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY
(1) Preparation of herbarium specimens
(2) Microtomy -Preparation of permanent microscopic slides.
(3) Crude drug identification - Stomatal types, stomatal index, trichomes, pallside ratio,
ash content of drugs.
(4) Identification of crude drugs by Photometry
Anx.25 E - M Sc Herbal Sci (CBCS) 2008-09 Page 15 of 28
(5) Preparation and Submission of ten potential medicinal plants.
(6) Use of extraction equipments - Soxhelt apparatus, Clevenger apparatus,
(7) Use of Separation techniques - Column, TLC, HPLC, Electrophoresis,
(8) Phytochemical Screening of alkaloids, steroids, terphenoids, phenols, flavanoids,
saponins and tannins.
(9) Extraction of volatile oils
(10) Animal handling and animal care
(11) Blood collection methods from experimental animals
(12) Mode of drug administration - Oral administration of drugs - tablets, capsules and
(13) Evaluation of Drugs for antimicrobial activity
(14) Demonstration of Drug resistance in pathogenic microbes
(15) In vitro antioxidant activity of crude drugs
(16) Determination of LD 50 in fish model
(17) Calculation of Pharmacokinetic estimates from given concentration vs time data.
(18) Interpretation of C-max and T-max curves and compartment models used in
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO7
PAPER-7: CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
Conventional (sexual and vegetative) - Sexual propagation - Seed viability - Seed
dormancy, types, methods of overcoming - Vegetative propagation - Grafting - Layering
- Vegetative propagation advantages and disadvantages of vegetative propagation.
Biotechnological methods of plant propagation - Micropropagation - Somatic
embryogenesis and somoclonal variation - Standardization of cultivation protocols of
selected medicinal plants; in vitro production of secondary metabolites.
Polyhouse technology - Selection of site and type of polyhouse, Construction, additional
facilities in polyhouses maintaining temperature and humidity - Irrigation - Soil
management - Pest management
Alternative method of secondary metabolite production - Organ culture, Cell culture,
Biotransformations (Microbial and Plant cells) - Scale up - Enhancement of product
formation by elicitation - Permeabilization of plant cells for product release
Cultivation of medicinal plans - Alma (Phyllanthus emblica), Tinnevelly senna (Cassia
aungusetifilia), Glory lily (Gloriosa superba), Sadavari (Asparagus racemosus), Safed
musli (Cheorophytum borivilianum), Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentina), Aloe (Aloe
vera); Medicinal plants in wasteland management. Medicinal plants types suitable for
cultivation in public gardens. .
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO8
PAPER-8: COMMERCIAL ASPECTS IN HERBAL SCIENCE
Post harvest technology of medicinal plants : Importance of post harvest technology in
medicinal crops: factors responsible for deterioration of medicinal produce - pre and post
harvest factors. Maturity indices for harvesting medicinal plants and preharvest
treatments. Systems of storage of harvested produce- Packaging principles and methods
of processing. Important medicinal products- essential oils, volatile and non-volatile oils,
oleo resins- active principles.
Herbal formulations - General properties of drug constituents: glycosides, saponins,
anthraquinone derivaties, enzymes, alkaloids, tannins, volatile oils, resins, gums, proteins
and fixed oils. Merits and demerits of solvents used in extraction. Extraction: definition,
various types. Theory of extraction of drugs. Extraction methods. Laboratory and large
scale extraction methods. Factors affecting the extraction process. Recovery of solvents
Dosage form design: Introduction, pharmaceutical ingredients. General consideration in
drug product formulation: Preformulation studies, stability, preservation against
microbial contamination, stability against aerial oxidation, taste and aesthetic qualities.
Quality assurance & Marketing of herbal products : Introduction to plant drug quality
control - authentication of drug samples; classification of evaluation and standardization
methods. Plant drug adulteration- types and methods. WHO guidelines to standardization
and assessment of quality, safety and efficacy of herbal products. Good Laboratory
Practice. Importance and application of ISO-9000 &14000; Export potential of medicinal
plants - plants for export, present status, hurdles, impact on biodiversity of producer
Detection of heavy metals, pesticide residues, microbial contamination. Biological and
radio-immuno assay of herbal drugs. Finger print profiles and their significance in quality
Intellectual Property Rights: Patent, Plant variety protection bill, geographical
indications, trade secrets, data base, trade mark, copy right, patent applicationsnotification,
sanctioning, Indian patent act, TRIPS, farmers right, biopiracy, status of
CORE PAPER CODE: 08 BOT B CO9
PAPER-9: PRACTICALS: CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS;
COMMERCIAL ASPECTS IN HERBAL SCIENCE
PRACTICALS : CULTIVATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS
(1) Methods of propagation - Effect of pH, temperature and plant growth regulator.
(2) Breaking of Dormancy by physical and chemical methods,
(3) Study of viability of different seeds (Tetrazolium test)
(4) Standardization of protocols for micro-propagation of medicinal plants, Callus
culture, organ culture,
(5) Preparation of Synthetic seed production
Anx.25 E - M Sc Herbal Sci (CBCS) 2008-09 Page 19 of 28
(6) Polyhouse technology - types of polyhouses and uses.
PRACTICALS : COMMERCIAL ASPECTS IN HERBAL SCIENCE
(1) Preparation of an advertisement for an herbal products
(2) Preparation of Report for Field Visit to Herbal industry.
(3) Microbiology of products - Identification and monitoring of microbial
contamination in the Herbal products.
(4) Visual and microbial methods
(5) Filling of application of for patent registration