# M.Sc in Physics

Bharathiar University
In Coimbatore

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## Important information

- Master
- Coimbatore

Where and when

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CoimbatoreBharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046., Tamil Nadu, India See map |

## Course programme

PAPER - I

MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS

Unit -I: Matrices and determinants

Properties of matrix addition and multiplication - different types of matrices and

their properties - Rank of a Matrix and some of its theorems - solutions to linear

homogeneous and non homogeneous equations - Cramers rule - eigenvalues and

eigenvectors of matrices - differentiation and integration of a matrix

Unit -II: Solving of differential equations

Homogeneous linear equations of second order with constant coefficients and

their solutions - ordinary second order differential with variable coefficients and their

solution by power series and Frobenius methods - extended power series method for

indicial equations

Unit-III: Special differential equations and their solutions

Legendre's differential equation: Legendre polynomials - Generating functions -

Recurrence Formulae - Rodriques's formula - orthogonality of Legendre's polynomial;

Bessel's differential equation: Bessel's polynomial - generating functions - Recurrence

Formulae - orthogonal properties of Bessel's polynomials - Hermite differential equation

- Hermite polynomials - generating functions - recurrence relation.

Unit - IV: Laplace Transforms

Laplace transforms: Linearity property, first and second translation property of

LT - Derivatives of Laplace transforms - Laplace transform of integrals - Initial and

Final value theorems; Methods for finding LT: direct and series expansion method,

Method of differential equation; Inverse Laplace transforms: Linearity property, first and

second translation property, Convolution property - Application of LT to differential

equations and boundary value problems

Unit - V: Fourier Series and integrals

Fourier series definition and expansion of a function x - Drichlet's conditions -

Assumptions for the validity of Fourier's series expansion and its theorems - Complex

representation of Fourier series - Problems related to periodic functions - graphical

representation of FS - Fourier integrals - convergence of FS - some applications of

Fourier transforms

PAPER - II

CLASSICAL AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS

Unit I: Lagrangian & Hamiltonian Formalism

Hamiltonian variational Principle- Lagrange's equations of motion-Application of

Lagrange's equation-Linear Harmonic oscillator-Particle moving under central force-

Single particle in space - Cartesian & plane polar coordinates - Atwood's machine-

Hamilton's equations of motion -Deduction of Hamiltonian's equation from variational

principle-Application of Hamiltonian's equations of motion- Linear Harmonic oscillator-

Particle moving under central force- A bead on a straight Wire - Atwood's Machine -

Principle of least action

Unit II - Canonical transformations and Poisson brackets

Canonical transformation - Generating function - Properties of canonical transformation

- Poisson bracket - Properties of Poisson bracket - constant of motion using Poisson

brackets - Poisson brackets of canonical variables - Poisson's Theorem. - Invariance of

Poisson bracket under canonical transformation - Motion as successive canonical

transformation (Infinitesimal generators). Harmonic oscillator problem using

infinitesimal generators

Unit III: HJ equation, Central force & Small Oscillations

The Hamilton - Jacobi equation for Hamilton's principle function - Harmonic oscillator

problem using Hamilton's - Jacobi method -Central force - definition and characteristics

- Two body problem - Equation of the orbit - Classification of orbits - Stable & unstable

equilibrium-Lagrange's equation for small oscillations-- Normal modes Normal

frequencies and Normal coordinates - Two masses and three springs - Three coupled

pendulums - Free vibrations of linear triatomic molecule.

Unit IV: Classical Statistics:

Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution Law(no derivation)- Evaluation of Constants-

Maxwell's Law of Distribution of Velocities-Most Probable, Mean, Mean Square and

Root Mean Square Speeds- Principle of Equipartition of Energy-Partition Function- -Total Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas-Molar Heat Capacity of a gas at Constant Volume-

Entropy-Helmholtz Free Energy-Pressure and Equation of State of an Ideal Gas.

Unit V: Quantum Statistics:

Bose-Einstein Distribution Law(no derivation)- B-E Energy Distribution for energies in

the range E to E+dE-Condition for B-E Distribution to approach M-B Distribution-Bose

Temperature- Bose-Einstein Condensation-Planck's Law from B-E Law- Fermi-Dirac

Distribution Law(no derivation)- F-D Law for energies in the range E to E+dE-Fermi

Energy-Effect of Temperature-Energy Distribution Curve-Free Electrons in a Metal-

Comparison of M-B, B-E and F-D Statistics.

PAPER - III

QUANTUM MECHANICS - I (Elective)

Unit I: Equation of Motion & Application of Schrödinger's Equation:

State Vectors-Hilbert Space-Dirac Notation-Dynamical Variables as Operators-Change

of Basis-Unitary Transformation-Equation of Motion in Schroedinger Picture,

Heisenberg Picture & Dirac Picture.

Unit II: Approximate Methods:

Time Independent Perturbation Theory in Non-Degenerate Case-Ground State of Helium

Atom-Degenerate Case-Stark Effect in Hydrogen-Variation Method & its Application to

Hydrogen Molecule-WKB Approximation.

Unit III: Time Dependent Perturbation Theory:

Time Dependent Perturbation Theory-First and Second Order Transitions-Transition to

Continuum of States-Fermi Golden Rule-Constant and Harmonic Perturbation-Transition

Probabilities-Selection Rules for Dipole Radiation-Collision-Adiabatic Approximation

Unit IV: Angular Momentum

Orbital Angular Momentum-Spin Angular Momentum-Total Angular Momentum

Operators-Commutation Relations of Total Angular Momentum with Components-

Ladder Operators-Commutation Relation of Jz with J+ and J- - Eigen Values of J2, Jz -

Matrix Representation of J2, Jz, J+ and J- - Addition of Angular Momenta- Clebsch

Gordon Coefficients-Properties.

Unit V: Relativistic Wave Equation:

Klein Gordon Equation-Plane Wave Equation-Charge and Current Density-Application

to the Study of Hydrogen Like Atom-Dirac Relativistic Equation for a Free Particle-

Dirac Matrices-Dirac Equation in Electromagnetic Field-Negative Energy States.

PAPER IV

PRACTICAL - I

ANY TWELVE EXPERIMENTS

1. Young's modulus - Corn's method

2. Rydberg constant - hydrogen and solar spectrum

3. Photosensitive devices

4. Tracing of equipotential surfaces

5. Polarizability of liquids

6. Determination of charge of an electron

7. Arc spectra - copper - iron and brass

8. Michelson interferometer - l and d l

9. Compressibility of liquids

10. X-ray powder photograph

11. Hall effect in semiconductors

12. Determination of wavelength of - He-Ne laser/diode laser using reflection grating

and diffraction grating.

13. Refractive index of liquids - using-He-Ne laser/diode laser

14. Determination of optical absorption co-efficient of a material - using

He-Ne laser /diode laser

15. Measurement of laser parameters using He-Ne laser/diode laser

16. To determine the dielectric constant of liquids and solids

PAPER - V

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS AND PROGRAMMING

Unit - I

Bisection method - Convergence of Bisection method - False position method.

Convergence of False position method - Newton Raphson method - convergence of

Newton Raphson method - Secant method - Convergence of secant method - Method of

successive approximation (Iteration Method) - Convergence of iteration method - Basic

Gauss elimination method - Gauss elimination with partial pivoting - Gauss Jacobi

iteration method - Gauss Seidal iteration method - Inversion of a matrix using Gauss

elimination method.

Unit II

Power method to find dominant eigen value - Inverse power method to find all

eigen values - Jacobi method - (only 2x2 and 3x3 matrices ) Forward Backward and

central differences - Gregory Newton forward and backward interpolation formula for

equal intervals - Gauss forward and backward interpolation formula - Stirling's formula

- Divided differences - properties of divided differences - Newton's divided difference

formula - Lagrange's interpolation formula for unequal intervals - cubic spline

interpolation

Unit - III

Method of least squares - straight line, parabola, y=axn, y=aebx, y=a+bxn type

curves - sum of squares of residuals for straight line and parabola fit - Newton's forward

and backward difference formula to get the derivatives (First and Second order) -

Divided difference table to calculate derivatives for unequal intervals Newton - cotes

formula - (Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule, Simpson's 3/8 rule, Boole`s rule) - Error

estimates in trapezoidal and Simpson's rule - Gaussian Quadrature method.

Unit - IV

Taylor series method for first order differential equation - Basic Euler method -

Improved Euler method - Modified Euler method - Runge Kulta fourth order method -RK4 method for simultaneous first order differential equation RK4 Method for second

order differential equation - Milne's Predictor - Corrector formulae - partial differential

equations - Difference -quotients - Graphical representations of partial quotients -

Classification of partial differential equation of the second order - standard and diagonal

five point formula for Laplace equations - solution of laplace`s equations (Liebmann`s

iterations process)

Unit V

Fortran programming - Flowcharts - Fortran constants Fortran variables -

subscripted variables - Input - Output statements - Control statements (Do, If, Goto

structures) subprograms - Function subprogram - subroutine subprograms simple

applications like, Ascending, descending order, matrix manipulation, character handling,

trapezoidal & Simpson's rule.

PAPER - VI

QUANTUM MECHANICS - II

Unit I: Scattering Theory

Scattering Amplitude-Expression in terms of Green's Function-Born Approximation and

its Validity-Partial Wave Analysis-Phase Shifts-Scattering by Coulomb and Yukawa

Potential

Unit II: Application to Atomic Structure

Central Field Approximation-Thomas Fermi Model-Hartree's Self Consistent Model-

Hartree Fock Equation-Alkali Atoms-Doublet Separation-Intensities-Complex Atoms-

Coupling Schemes

Unit III: Application to Molecular Structure

Hydrogen Molecule Ion-Hydrogen Molecule-Heitler London Method-Covalent Bond-

Spin Orbit Interaction as Correction to Central Field Approximation- Hartree Fock Self

Consistent Field Method for Molecules-Hybridisation.

Unit IV: Theory of Radiation (Semi Classical Treatment)

Einstein's Coefficients-Spontaneous and Induced Emission of Radiation from Semi

Classical Theory-Radiation Field as an Assembly of Oscillators-Interaction with Atoms-

Emission and Absorption Rates-Density Matrix and its Applications

Unit V: Quantum Field Theory

Quantization of Wave Fields- Classical Lagrangian Equation-Classical Hamiltonian

Equation-Field Quantization of the Non-Relativistic Schroedinger Equation-Creation,

Destruction and Number Operators-Anti Commutation Relations-Quantization of

Electromagnetic Field Energy and Momentum.

PAPER - VII

CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS (Elective)

Unit I:

Basics of crystal physics: Forces between atoms - Cohesive energy of ionic crystals - the

Born Haber cycle - the atomic packing theory - the Laue and Bragg's X-ray diffraction

theory - Ewald construction - the reciprocal lattice and its important properties -

diffraction intensity - the powder, Laue and rotation/oscillation methods of x - ray

diffraction.

Unit II:

Defects in solids and diffusion theory : Point and line defects in solids - surface

imperfections - Fick's law of diffusion - solution to Fick's second law - different

diffusion mechanism - application of diffusion -diffusion in alkali Halides and their ionic

conductivity.

Unit III:

Free electron theory of metals : Drude model of electrical conduction - Lorentz

modification of Drude model - the density of states - Fermi Dirac statistics - effect of

temperature of Fermi Dirac distribution - the electron heat capacity - the Sommerfield

theory of electrical conduction - resistivity in metals - thermionic emission - Hall effect

and its importance

Unit IV:

Phonon theory and thermal conductivity : Lattice vibration of one dimensional mono

atomic and diatomic chains - their dispersion relations - Quantization of lattice vibrations

- inelastic neutron scattering to measure dispersion - classical and quantum theory of

lattice heat capacity (Debye and Einstein theory) - Anharmonic effect.

Unit V:

Band theory and Fermi surfaces : Band theory: Bloch theorem - the Kronig Penney

model - the nearly free electron model - the tight binding model - construction of one,

two and three dimensional Brillouin zones - extended, reduced and periodic zone

schemes - the effective mass of electrons;

Fermi surfaces: Fermi surface in metals - effect of electric and magnetic fields on Fermi

surface - quantization of electron orbit - Anomalous skin effect - the cyclotron

resonance - de Hass von Alphen effect

PAPER - VIII

PRACTICAL - II

ANY TWELVE EXPERIMENTS

1. Zener diode Characteristics

2. Regulated power supply - using IC 7809 & 7805

3. IC Regulated dual power supply - using IC 7809 & 7805

4. JFET characteristics

5. JFET amplifier -frequency response

6. Operational amplifier - characteristics

7. Operational amplifier - applications - frequency response

8. UJT Relaxation oscillator

9. A stable multivibrator - using Op. amp and transistor

10. IC 555-Timer - Study of waveforms

11. Logic circuits - using ICs, AND, OR, NOT, NAND & NOR

12. Study of flip - flops - using ICs

13. Decoder and display circuits - LED & Seven segment display

14. D/A and A/D converter

15. Microprocessor Programming

16. Computer Programming

PAPER - IX

ATOMIC PHYSICS AND MOLECULARSPECTROSCOPY

UNIT - I

Quantum states of one electron atoms-Atomic orbitals-Hydrogen spectrum-

Pauli's principle-Spectra of alkali elements-Spin orbit interaction and fine structure in

alkali Spectra-Equivalent and non-equivalent electrons.

UNIT - II

Normal and anomalous Zeeman effect - Paschen Back effect- Stark effect-Two

electron systems-interaction energy in LS and JJ Coupling-Hyperfine structure

(qualitative)- Line broadening mechanisms (general ideas).

UNIT - III

Types of molecules-Diatomic linear symmetric top, asymmetric top and spherical

top molecules-Rotational spectra of diatomic molecules as a rigid rotor-Energy levels and

spectra of non rigid rotor-intensity of rotational lines.

UNIT - IV

IR Spectroscopy: Practical Aspects-Theory of IR Rotation Vibration Spectra of Gaseous

Diatomic Molecules-Applications-Basic Principles of FTIR Spectroscopy.

Raman Spectroscopy: Classical and Quantum Theory of Raman Effect-Rotation

Vibration Raman Spectra of Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules-Applications-Laser

Raman Spectroscopy.

UNIT - V

NMR Spectroscopy: Quantum Mechanical and Classical Description-Bloch Equation-

Relaxation Processes-Experimental Technique-Principle and Working of High

Resolution NMR Spectrometer-Chemical Shift

ESR Spectroscopy: Basic Principles-Experiments-ESR Spectrometer-Reflection Cavity

and Microwave Bridge-ESR Spectrum-Hyperfine Structure

PAPER - X

ADVANCED CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS

Unit - I

Theory of semiconductors and dielectrics: Theory of semiconductors:

Classification of semiconductors - direct and indirect semiconductors - intrinsic carrier

densities - population of donor and acceptor levels at thermal equilibrium - extrinsic

semiconductors - temperature dependence on electrical conductivity; Theory of

dielectrics: definition of dielectric constant - sources of dielectric constant

Unit - II

Theory of magnetism in solids: Langevin theory of dia and para magnetism -

Paulis theory of Para magnetism - magnetic resonance - Weis theory of Ferromagnetism -

Ferromagnetic domains - Neel model of antiferro and ferri magnetisms- spin wave theory

Unit- III

Theory of superconductivity: Critical temperature - persistent current - Meissner

effect - London equation - type I and type II superconductors - Energy gaps in

superconductor - BCS theory - theory of Josephson tunneling - elementary knowledge

on high temperature superconductors.

Unit- IV

Growth of thin solid films

Theories of thin film nucleation: the capillary and atomistic model - structural

consequences of thin film nucleation - the four stages of nucleation - thickness

determination by optical interference method - sources of resistivity in metallic thin films

Unit -V

Electrical conduction through thin solid films : Ohmic, Neutral and blocking

contacts of metal insulator interface contacts - effect of surface states on the interface -

tunnel effect through thin film insulators - electrode limited conduction process, Pool-

Frenkel effect - Space charge limited currents in insulator - Negative Resistance effect

and Memory effect - Principles of Hot-Electron thin film devices

PAPER - XI

ELECTRONIC DEVICES (Elective)

UNIT - I

Transistors: JFET, BJT, MOSFET and MESFET: Structure, Working ,

Derivations of the equations for I - V characteristics under different conditions. High

Frequency limits.

UNIT - II

Microwave Devices: Tunnel diode, transfer electron devices (Gunn diode).

Avalanche Transit time devices, Impact diodes, and parametric devices.

UNIT -III

Photonic Devices : Radiative and non-radiative transitions. Optical Absorption,

Bulk and Thin film Photoconductive devices (LDR), diode photodetector, solar cell-

(open circuit voltage and short circuit current, fill factor). LED (high frequency limit,

effect of surface and indirect recombination current, operation of LED), diode lasers

(conditions for population inversion, in active region, light confinement factor. Optical

gain and threshold current for lasing,Fabry-Perrot cavity Length for lasing and the

separation.

UNIT - IV

Memory Devices: Static and dynamic random access memories SRAM and

DRAM, CMOS and NMOS, non-volatile - NMOS, magnetic, optical and ferroelectric

memories, charge couple devices (CCD).

UNIT - V

Other Electronic Devices: Electro-Optic, Magneto-Optic and Acousto-Optic

Effects. Material Properties related to get these effects. Important Ferro electric, Liquid

Crystal and Polymeric materials for these devices. Piezoelectric, Electrostrictive and

magnetostrictive Effects, important materials exhibiting these properties, and their

applications in sensors and actuator devices. Acoustic Delay lines, piezoelectric

resonators and filters. High frequency piezoelectric devices- Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

PAPER XII

PRACTICAL - III

ANY TWELVE EXPERIMENTS

1. Thin film evaporation

2. Thickness measurement

3. Measurement of capacitance and dielectric loss of thin films and calculation of

dielectric constant

4. Breakdown potential of gases

5. Conductivity of fast ionic conductors

6. Frequency dependence - fast Ionic conductors

7. Construction of a wave function for Schrödinger equation

8. Solution of Schrödinger equation by Fourier Grid Hamiltonian

9. Thickness distribution

10. Fabrication of a thin film capacitor

11. Calculation of band gap energy of semi conducting thin films

12. Measurement of resistance by four probe method

13. Collision cross - section for electrons in the discharge tube

14. Average energy of electrons in the discharge tube

15. Dielectric study of fast ionic conductors

16. Thermo luminescence study of fast ionic conductors

17. Radiation dose measurements

18. Determination of Lennard Jone's potential

19. Determination of equilibrium distance by using the potential function.

PAPER-XIII

ELECTRODYNAMICS AND PLASMA PHYSICS

Unit I: Electrostatics

Coulomb's law- Gauss law-differential and integral representation- Electric field-

Electric potential- energy density-Method of images-Multipole expansions.

Unit II: Electrostatics in macroscopic media

Potential and Field due to an Electric Dipole-Dielectric Polarization-External Field of a

Dielectric Medium-Guass' Theorem in a Dielectric-Electric Displacement Vector DLinear

Dielectrics-Relations connecting Electric Susceptibility Χe, Polarization P,

Displacement D and Dielectric Constant-Boundary Conditions of Field Vectors-

Molecular Field-Clausius Mosotti Relation for Non-Polar Molecules- Electrostatic

Energy and Energy Density

Unit III: Magnetostatics

Biot-Savart Law- Statement-Lorentz Force Law and Definition of B-General Proof of

Ampere's Circuital Law-Divergence and Curl of B-Magnetic Scalar Potential (derivatives)

of expression only)-Equivalence of Small Current Loop and Magnetic Dipole-Magnetic

Vector Potential (derivation of expression only).

Unit IV: Electromagnetics

Equation of Continuity-Displacement Current-Derivation of Maxwell's Equations-

Physical Significance-Poynting Vector-Momentum in EM Field-Electro Magnetic

Potentials-Maxwell's Equations in terms of EM Potentials-Lorentz Gauge-Coulomb

Gauge- Boundary Conditions at Interfaces-Reflection and Refraction-Fresnel's Laws-

Brewster's Law & Degree of Polarization-Total Internal Reflection and Critical Angle-

Reflection from a Metal Surface-Wave Guides-Rectangular Wave Guide

Unit V

Fluid equations for plasma, equilibrium and stability: Relation of plasma physics

to ordinary electromagnetics, the fluid equations for plasma, fluid drifts perpendicular

and parallel to B, the plasma approximation. Hydromagnetic equilibrium, the concept of

Β, diffusion of magnetic field into a plasma, Classification of instabilities, two stream and

gravitational instabilities.

PAPER - XIV

NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS

Unit - I

Properties of nuclear force - Deutron ground state properties - square well

solution for the deuteron - Neutron proton scattering at low energies - scattering length -

phase shift - Proton proton scattering at low energies - Exchange forces - non-central

forces - meson theory of nuclear forceUnit - II

Binding energies of nuclei - Liquid drop model (Weizacker's semi empirical

mass formula) - Bohr-Wheeler theory of fission - Evidences for shell effects (Magic

numbers) - Spin orbit coupling of an electron bound in an atom - spin orbit coupling in

nuclei - single particle shell model - parabolic and square well potential - Predictions of

shell model (stability, spin and parities of ground state, magnetic moments, nuclear

isomerism)

Unit - III

Alpha spectrum and fine structure - alpha decay paradox (barrier penetration) -

Beta decay spectrum - Pauli's neutrino hypothesis - Fermi's theory of beta decay -

selection rules for beta decay - parity non conservation in beta decay - gamma ray

emission - selection rules - multipole radiation - internal conversion - nuclear isomerism

Unit - IV

Kinds of nuclear reactions - conservation laws - nuclear cross section - partial

wave analysis of reaction cross section - compound nucleus - reciprocity theorem -

resonance scattering and reaction cross sections - Breit Wigner dispersion formula

Unit - V

Classification of elementary particles - Fundamental interactions - Quantum

number of individual particles (orbital, spin, isospin, strangeness) - Parity - Charge

conjugation - law of conservation of leptons - law of conservation of baryons -

symmetries and conservation laws - (CPT Theorem) - SU(3) multiplets of Hadrons -

Gellmann Okubo mass formula for SU(3) multiplets

DIPLOMA PAPER I

FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOSCALE SCIENCE

Unit I: Basics of Nanotechnology I

Background to Nanotechnology - scientific revolutions - types of

nanotechnology and nanomachines - atomic structure molecules & phases - molecular

and atomic size - surfaces and dimensional space - top down and bottom up Nanoscale

formation

Unit II: Forces between atoms and molecules

Strong intermolecular forces - covalent and coulomb interactions - interactions

involving polar molecules and polarization - weak intermolecular forces and total

intermolecular pair potentials - Van der Waals forces - repulsive forces; special

interactions such as hydrogen -bonding, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions

Unit III: Nanostructures and their properties

Definition of nano systems - dimensionality and size dependent phenomena in

Quantum dots, and Quantum wires - size dependent variation in magnetic, electronic

transport properties

Unit IV: High vacuum technology

Evaporation theory - different sources for evaporation - working principles of

rotary and diffusion pumps - cryogenic pumps - cryo sorption and getter pumps -

vacuum materials

DIPLOMA PAPER II

NANOMATERIALS SYNTHESIS

Unit I: Sol-gel processing

Fundamentals of sol-gel process - sol-gel synthetic methods for oxides - other

inorganics and nano composites - the Pecheni method - silica gel - Zirconia and Yttrium

gel - aluminosilicate gel - polymer nano composites

Unit II: Film deposition methods

Introduction - fundamentals of film deposition - thermal evaporation - molecular

beam epitaxy - pulsed laser deposition - sputter deposition - chemical vapour deposition

- layer by layer growth and ultra thin films - chemical solution deposition - Langmuir

Blodgelt films.

Unit III: Synthesis of nanostructures

Surface Chemistry and its role to prepare quantum dots - Polymer as quantum dot

size stabilizer - One-dimensional (1D) by Spontaneous Growth - 1D structure by VLS

and SLS Growth - Template Assisted Growth - Electrochemical growth of 1D structures

Unit IV: New forms of carbon

Types of nanotubes - formation of nanotubes - methods and reactants - arcing in

the presence of cobalt - laser methods - ball milling - chemical vapour deposition

methods - properties of nano tubes - plasma arcing - electro deposition - pyrolytic

synthesis - Zeolites and templated powders layered silicates.

DIPLOMA PAPER III

CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF NANO MATERIALS

Unit I: Nano characterizing tool 1

Working of Atomic Force Microscopy - Mode of operations (qualitative) and its

application - X-Ray diffraction basics and its application to Size Analysis of

nanomaterials - NMR Basics and application to Nanomaterials

Unit II: Nano characterizing tool 2

Scanning Electron Microscope: Theory- Instrumental setup and its application -

Low KV SEM and its application - Low temperature SEM and its application - working

of electron probe micro analysis and its application in elemental analysis - EDX spectra

Important material systems - optical process in semiconductors - optical process

in quantum wells - semiconducting optoelectronic devices - organic optoelectronic

devices (qualitative)

Unit III: Applications of nanomaterials

Quantum dot IR photo detectors- Quantum dot lasers - Synthesis of Zinc oxide

nanomaterials and its application - Synthesis of group three nitride nanostructures and

their applications - SK growth of germanium dots on silicon and its application.

Unit IV: Cell Biology (quantitatively)

Amino acids, Protein structure: Primary, Secondary, teritary, structure of Nucleic

acids - Nucleosides and Nucleotides - physical properties of nucleosides & nucleotides -

base pair - mismatch base pair - stacking - Backbone of Nucleic acids

Antibodies and their use in nano based drug delivery and imaging - Tumor

targeted drum delivery.

DIPLOMA PAPER IV

PRACTICALS

1. Preparation of nano particles by chemical method.

2. Preparation of nano materials by vacuum coating unit.

3. Preparation of nano particles by ball milling method.

4. Processing of particles by plasma torch

5. Characterization of size of nano particles.

6. Characterization of nano particles by using LCR bridge.

7. Construction of virtual bio nanobulas.

8. Interactions of water molecules with bio nanotubes.

9. Polymer nanocomposite

MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS

Unit -I: Matrices and determinants

Properties of matrix addition and multiplication - different types of matrices and

their properties - Rank of a Matrix and some of its theorems - solutions to linear

homogeneous and non homogeneous equations - Cramers rule - eigenvalues and

eigenvectors of matrices - differentiation and integration of a matrix

Unit -II: Solving of differential equations

Homogeneous linear equations of second order with constant coefficients and

their solutions - ordinary second order differential with variable coefficients and their

solution by power series and Frobenius methods - extended power series method for

indicial equations

Unit-III: Special differential equations and their solutions

Legendre's differential equation: Legendre polynomials - Generating functions -

Recurrence Formulae - Rodriques's formula - orthogonality of Legendre's polynomial;

Bessel's differential equation: Bessel's polynomial - generating functions - Recurrence

Formulae - orthogonal properties of Bessel's polynomials - Hermite differential equation

- Hermite polynomials - generating functions - recurrence relation.

Unit - IV: Laplace Transforms

Laplace transforms: Linearity property, first and second translation property of

LT - Derivatives of Laplace transforms - Laplace transform of integrals - Initial and

Final value theorems; Methods for finding LT: direct and series expansion method,

Method of differential equation; Inverse Laplace transforms: Linearity property, first and

second translation property, Convolution property - Application of LT to differential

equations and boundary value problems

Unit - V: Fourier Series and integrals

Fourier series definition and expansion of a function x - Drichlet's conditions -

Assumptions for the validity of Fourier's series expansion and its theorems - Complex

representation of Fourier series - Problems related to periodic functions - graphical

representation of FS - Fourier integrals - convergence of FS - some applications of

Fourier transforms

PAPER - II

CLASSICAL AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS

Unit I: Lagrangian & Hamiltonian Formalism

Hamiltonian variational Principle- Lagrange's equations of motion-Application of

Lagrange's equation-Linear Harmonic oscillator-Particle moving under central force-

Single particle in space - Cartesian & plane polar coordinates - Atwood's machine-

Hamilton's equations of motion -Deduction of Hamiltonian's equation from variational

principle-Application of Hamiltonian's equations of motion- Linear Harmonic oscillator-

Particle moving under central force- A bead on a straight Wire - Atwood's Machine -

Principle of least action

Unit II - Canonical transformations and Poisson brackets

Canonical transformation - Generating function - Properties of canonical transformation

- Poisson bracket - Properties of Poisson bracket - constant of motion using Poisson

brackets - Poisson brackets of canonical variables - Poisson's Theorem. - Invariance of

Poisson bracket under canonical transformation - Motion as successive canonical

transformation (Infinitesimal generators). Harmonic oscillator problem using

infinitesimal generators

Unit III: HJ equation, Central force & Small Oscillations

The Hamilton - Jacobi equation for Hamilton's principle function - Harmonic oscillator

problem using Hamilton's - Jacobi method -Central force - definition and characteristics

- Two body problem - Equation of the orbit - Classification of orbits - Stable & unstable

equilibrium-Lagrange's equation for small oscillations-- Normal modes Normal

frequencies and Normal coordinates - Two masses and three springs - Three coupled

pendulums - Free vibrations of linear triatomic molecule.

Unit IV: Classical Statistics:

Maxwell Boltzmann Distribution Law(no derivation)- Evaluation of Constants-

Maxwell's Law of Distribution of Velocities-Most Probable, Mean, Mean Square and

Root Mean Square Speeds- Principle of Equipartition of Energy-Partition Function- -Total Internal Energy of an Ideal Gas-Molar Heat Capacity of a gas at Constant Volume-

Entropy-Helmholtz Free Energy-Pressure and Equation of State of an Ideal Gas.

Unit V: Quantum Statistics:

Bose-Einstein Distribution Law(no derivation)- B-E Energy Distribution for energies in

the range E to E+dE-Condition for B-E Distribution to approach M-B Distribution-Bose

Temperature- Bose-Einstein Condensation-Planck's Law from B-E Law- Fermi-Dirac

Distribution Law(no derivation)- F-D Law for energies in the range E to E+dE-Fermi

Energy-Effect of Temperature-Energy Distribution Curve-Free Electrons in a Metal-

Comparison of M-B, B-E and F-D Statistics.

PAPER - III

QUANTUM MECHANICS - I (Elective)

Unit I: Equation of Motion & Application of Schrödinger's Equation:

State Vectors-Hilbert Space-Dirac Notation-Dynamical Variables as Operators-Change

of Basis-Unitary Transformation-Equation of Motion in Schroedinger Picture,

Heisenberg Picture & Dirac Picture.

Unit II: Approximate Methods:

Time Independent Perturbation Theory in Non-Degenerate Case-Ground State of Helium

Atom-Degenerate Case-Stark Effect in Hydrogen-Variation Method & its Application to

Hydrogen Molecule-WKB Approximation.

Unit III: Time Dependent Perturbation Theory:

Time Dependent Perturbation Theory-First and Second Order Transitions-Transition to

Continuum of States-Fermi Golden Rule-Constant and Harmonic Perturbation-Transition

Probabilities-Selection Rules for Dipole Radiation-Collision-Adiabatic Approximation

Unit IV: Angular Momentum

Orbital Angular Momentum-Spin Angular Momentum-Total Angular Momentum

Operators-Commutation Relations of Total Angular Momentum with Components-

Ladder Operators-Commutation Relation of Jz with J+ and J- - Eigen Values of J2, Jz -

Matrix Representation of J2, Jz, J+ and J- - Addition of Angular Momenta- Clebsch

Gordon Coefficients-Properties.

Unit V: Relativistic Wave Equation:

Klein Gordon Equation-Plane Wave Equation-Charge and Current Density-Application

to the Study of Hydrogen Like Atom-Dirac Relativistic Equation for a Free Particle-

Dirac Matrices-Dirac Equation in Electromagnetic Field-Negative Energy States.

PAPER IV

PRACTICAL - I

ANY TWELVE EXPERIMENTS

1. Young's modulus - Corn's method

2. Rydberg constant - hydrogen and solar spectrum

3. Photosensitive devices

4. Tracing of equipotential surfaces

5. Polarizability of liquids

6. Determination of charge of an electron

7. Arc spectra - copper - iron and brass

8. Michelson interferometer - l and d l

9. Compressibility of liquids

10. X-ray powder photograph

11. Hall effect in semiconductors

12. Determination of wavelength of - He-Ne laser/diode laser using reflection grating

and diffraction grating.

13. Refractive index of liquids - using-He-Ne laser/diode laser

14. Determination of optical absorption co-efficient of a material - using

He-Ne laser /diode laser

15. Measurement of laser parameters using He-Ne laser/diode laser

16. To determine the dielectric constant of liquids and solids

PAPER - V

COMPUTATIONAL METHODS AND PROGRAMMING

Unit - I

Bisection method - Convergence of Bisection method - False position method.

Convergence of False position method - Newton Raphson method - convergence of

Newton Raphson method - Secant method - Convergence of secant method - Method of

successive approximation (Iteration Method) - Convergence of iteration method - Basic

Gauss elimination method - Gauss elimination with partial pivoting - Gauss Jacobi

iteration method - Gauss Seidal iteration method - Inversion of a matrix using Gauss

elimination method.

Unit II

Power method to find dominant eigen value - Inverse power method to find all

eigen values - Jacobi method - (only 2x2 and 3x3 matrices ) Forward Backward and

central differences - Gregory Newton forward and backward interpolation formula for

equal intervals - Gauss forward and backward interpolation formula - Stirling's formula

- Divided differences - properties of divided differences - Newton's divided difference

formula - Lagrange's interpolation formula for unequal intervals - cubic spline

interpolation

Unit - III

Method of least squares - straight line, parabola, y=axn, y=aebx, y=a+bxn type

curves - sum of squares of residuals for straight line and parabola fit - Newton's forward

and backward difference formula to get the derivatives (First and Second order) -

Divided difference table to calculate derivatives for unequal intervals Newton - cotes

formula - (Trapezoidal rule, Simpson's rule, Simpson's 3/8 rule, Boole`s rule) - Error

estimates in trapezoidal and Simpson's rule - Gaussian Quadrature method.

Unit - IV

Taylor series method for first order differential equation - Basic Euler method -

Improved Euler method - Modified Euler method - Runge Kulta fourth order method -RK4 method for simultaneous first order differential equation RK4 Method for second

order differential equation - Milne's Predictor - Corrector formulae - partial differential

equations - Difference -quotients - Graphical representations of partial quotients -

Classification of partial differential equation of the second order - standard and diagonal

five point formula for Laplace equations - solution of laplace`s equations (Liebmann`s

iterations process)

Unit V

Fortran programming - Flowcharts - Fortran constants Fortran variables -

subscripted variables - Input - Output statements - Control statements (Do, If, Goto

structures) subprograms - Function subprogram - subroutine subprograms simple

applications like, Ascending, descending order, matrix manipulation, character handling,

trapezoidal & Simpson's rule.

PAPER - VI

QUANTUM MECHANICS - II

Unit I: Scattering Theory

Scattering Amplitude-Expression in terms of Green's Function-Born Approximation and

its Validity-Partial Wave Analysis-Phase Shifts-Scattering by Coulomb and Yukawa

Potential

Unit II: Application to Atomic Structure

Central Field Approximation-Thomas Fermi Model-Hartree's Self Consistent Model-

Hartree Fock Equation-Alkali Atoms-Doublet Separation-Intensities-Complex Atoms-

Coupling Schemes

Unit III: Application to Molecular Structure

Hydrogen Molecule Ion-Hydrogen Molecule-Heitler London Method-Covalent Bond-

Spin Orbit Interaction as Correction to Central Field Approximation- Hartree Fock Self

Consistent Field Method for Molecules-Hybridisation.

Unit IV: Theory of Radiation (Semi Classical Treatment)

Einstein's Coefficients-Spontaneous and Induced Emission of Radiation from Semi

Classical Theory-Radiation Field as an Assembly of Oscillators-Interaction with Atoms-

Emission and Absorption Rates-Density Matrix and its Applications

Unit V: Quantum Field Theory

Quantization of Wave Fields- Classical Lagrangian Equation-Classical Hamiltonian

Equation-Field Quantization of the Non-Relativistic Schroedinger Equation-Creation,

Destruction and Number Operators-Anti Commutation Relations-Quantization of

Electromagnetic Field Energy and Momentum.

PAPER - VII

CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS (Elective)

Unit I:

Basics of crystal physics: Forces between atoms - Cohesive energy of ionic crystals - the

Born Haber cycle - the atomic packing theory - the Laue and Bragg's X-ray diffraction

theory - Ewald construction - the reciprocal lattice and its important properties -

diffraction intensity - the powder, Laue and rotation/oscillation methods of x - ray

diffraction.

Unit II:

Defects in solids and diffusion theory : Point and line defects in solids - surface

imperfections - Fick's law of diffusion - solution to Fick's second law - different

diffusion mechanism - application of diffusion -diffusion in alkali Halides and their ionic

conductivity.

Unit III:

Free electron theory of metals : Drude model of electrical conduction - Lorentz

modification of Drude model - the density of states - Fermi Dirac statistics - effect of

temperature of Fermi Dirac distribution - the electron heat capacity - the Sommerfield

theory of electrical conduction - resistivity in metals - thermionic emission - Hall effect

and its importance

Unit IV:

Phonon theory and thermal conductivity : Lattice vibration of one dimensional mono

atomic and diatomic chains - their dispersion relations - Quantization of lattice vibrations

- inelastic neutron scattering to measure dispersion - classical and quantum theory of

lattice heat capacity (Debye and Einstein theory) - Anharmonic effect.

Unit V:

Band theory and Fermi surfaces : Band theory: Bloch theorem - the Kronig Penney

model - the nearly free electron model - the tight binding model - construction of one,

two and three dimensional Brillouin zones - extended, reduced and periodic zone

schemes - the effective mass of electrons;

Fermi surfaces: Fermi surface in metals - effect of electric and magnetic fields on Fermi

surface - quantization of electron orbit - Anomalous skin effect - the cyclotron

resonance - de Hass von Alphen effect

PAPER - VIII

PRACTICAL - II

ANY TWELVE EXPERIMENTS

1. Zener diode Characteristics

2. Regulated power supply - using IC 7809 & 7805

3. IC Regulated dual power supply - using IC 7809 & 7805

4. JFET characteristics

5. JFET amplifier -frequency response

6. Operational amplifier - characteristics

7. Operational amplifier - applications - frequency response

8. UJT Relaxation oscillator

9. A stable multivibrator - using Op. amp and transistor

10. IC 555-Timer - Study of waveforms

11. Logic circuits - using ICs, AND, OR, NOT, NAND & NOR

12. Study of flip - flops - using ICs

13. Decoder and display circuits - LED & Seven segment display

14. D/A and A/D converter

15. Microprocessor Programming

16. Computer Programming

PAPER - IX

ATOMIC PHYSICS AND MOLECULARSPECTROSCOPY

UNIT - I

Quantum states of one electron atoms-Atomic orbitals-Hydrogen spectrum-

Pauli's principle-Spectra of alkali elements-Spin orbit interaction and fine structure in

alkali Spectra-Equivalent and non-equivalent electrons.

UNIT - II

Normal and anomalous Zeeman effect - Paschen Back effect- Stark effect-Two

electron systems-interaction energy in LS and JJ Coupling-Hyperfine structure

(qualitative)- Line broadening mechanisms (general ideas).

UNIT - III

Types of molecules-Diatomic linear symmetric top, asymmetric top and spherical

top molecules-Rotational spectra of diatomic molecules as a rigid rotor-Energy levels and

spectra of non rigid rotor-intensity of rotational lines.

UNIT - IV

IR Spectroscopy: Practical Aspects-Theory of IR Rotation Vibration Spectra of Gaseous

Diatomic Molecules-Applications-Basic Principles of FTIR Spectroscopy.

Raman Spectroscopy: Classical and Quantum Theory of Raman Effect-Rotation

Vibration Raman Spectra of Diatomic and Polyatomic Molecules-Applications-Laser

Raman Spectroscopy.

UNIT - V

NMR Spectroscopy: Quantum Mechanical and Classical Description-Bloch Equation-

Relaxation Processes-Experimental Technique-Principle and Working of High

Resolution NMR Spectrometer-Chemical Shift

ESR Spectroscopy: Basic Principles-Experiments-ESR Spectrometer-Reflection Cavity

and Microwave Bridge-ESR Spectrum-Hyperfine Structure

PAPER - X

ADVANCED CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS

Unit - I

Theory of semiconductors and dielectrics: Theory of semiconductors:

Classification of semiconductors - direct and indirect semiconductors - intrinsic carrier

densities - population of donor and acceptor levels at thermal equilibrium - extrinsic

semiconductors - temperature dependence on electrical conductivity; Theory of

dielectrics: definition of dielectric constant - sources of dielectric constant

Unit - II

Theory of magnetism in solids: Langevin theory of dia and para magnetism -

Paulis theory of Para magnetism - magnetic resonance - Weis theory of Ferromagnetism -

Ferromagnetic domains - Neel model of antiferro and ferri magnetisms- spin wave theory

Unit- III

Theory of superconductivity: Critical temperature - persistent current - Meissner

effect - London equation - type I and type II superconductors - Energy gaps in

superconductor - BCS theory - theory of Josephson tunneling - elementary knowledge

on high temperature superconductors.

Unit- IV

Growth of thin solid films

Theories of thin film nucleation: the capillary and atomistic model - structural

consequences of thin film nucleation - the four stages of nucleation - thickness

determination by optical interference method - sources of resistivity in metallic thin films

Unit -V

Electrical conduction through thin solid films : Ohmic, Neutral and blocking

contacts of metal insulator interface contacts - effect of surface states on the interface -

tunnel effect through thin film insulators - electrode limited conduction process, Pool-

Frenkel effect - Space charge limited currents in insulator - Negative Resistance effect

and Memory effect - Principles of Hot-Electron thin film devices

PAPER - XI

ELECTRONIC DEVICES (Elective)

UNIT - I

Transistors: JFET, BJT, MOSFET and MESFET: Structure, Working ,

Derivations of the equations for I - V characteristics under different conditions. High

Frequency limits.

UNIT - II

Microwave Devices: Tunnel diode, transfer electron devices (Gunn diode).

Avalanche Transit time devices, Impact diodes, and parametric devices.

UNIT -III

Photonic Devices : Radiative and non-radiative transitions. Optical Absorption,

Bulk and Thin film Photoconductive devices (LDR), diode photodetector, solar cell-

(open circuit voltage and short circuit current, fill factor). LED (high frequency limit,

effect of surface and indirect recombination current, operation of LED), diode lasers

(conditions for population inversion, in active region, light confinement factor. Optical

gain and threshold current for lasing,Fabry-Perrot cavity Length for lasing and the

separation.

UNIT - IV

Memory Devices: Static and dynamic random access memories SRAM and

DRAM, CMOS and NMOS, non-volatile - NMOS, magnetic, optical and ferroelectric

memories, charge couple devices (CCD).

UNIT - V

Other Electronic Devices: Electro-Optic, Magneto-Optic and Acousto-Optic

Effects. Material Properties related to get these effects. Important Ferro electric, Liquid

Crystal and Polymeric materials for these devices. Piezoelectric, Electrostrictive and

magnetostrictive Effects, important materials exhibiting these properties, and their

applications in sensors and actuator devices. Acoustic Delay lines, piezoelectric

resonators and filters. High frequency piezoelectric devices- Surface Acoustic Wave Devices

PAPER XII

PRACTICAL - III

ANY TWELVE EXPERIMENTS

1. Thin film evaporation

2. Thickness measurement

3. Measurement of capacitance and dielectric loss of thin films and calculation of

dielectric constant

4. Breakdown potential of gases

5. Conductivity of fast ionic conductors

6. Frequency dependence - fast Ionic conductors

7. Construction of a wave function for Schrödinger equation

8. Solution of Schrödinger equation by Fourier Grid Hamiltonian

9. Thickness distribution

10. Fabrication of a thin film capacitor

11. Calculation of band gap energy of semi conducting thin films

12. Measurement of resistance by four probe method

13. Collision cross - section for electrons in the discharge tube

14. Average energy of electrons in the discharge tube

15. Dielectric study of fast ionic conductors

16. Thermo luminescence study of fast ionic conductors

17. Radiation dose measurements

18. Determination of Lennard Jone's potential

19. Determination of equilibrium distance by using the potential function.

PAPER-XIII

ELECTRODYNAMICS AND PLASMA PHYSICS

Unit I: Electrostatics

Coulomb's law- Gauss law-differential and integral representation- Electric field-

Electric potential- energy density-Method of images-Multipole expansions.

Unit II: Electrostatics in macroscopic media

Potential and Field due to an Electric Dipole-Dielectric Polarization-External Field of a

Dielectric Medium-Guass' Theorem in a Dielectric-Electric Displacement Vector DLinear

Dielectrics-Relations connecting Electric Susceptibility Χe, Polarization P,

Displacement D and Dielectric Constant-Boundary Conditions of Field Vectors-

Molecular Field-Clausius Mosotti Relation for Non-Polar Molecules- Electrostatic

Energy and Energy Density

Unit III: Magnetostatics

Biot-Savart Law- Statement-Lorentz Force Law and Definition of B-General Proof of

Ampere's Circuital Law-Divergence and Curl of B-Magnetic Scalar Potential (derivatives)

of expression only)-Equivalence of Small Current Loop and Magnetic Dipole-Magnetic

Vector Potential (derivation of expression only).

Unit IV: Electromagnetics

Equation of Continuity-Displacement Current-Derivation of Maxwell's Equations-

Physical Significance-Poynting Vector-Momentum in EM Field-Electro Magnetic

Potentials-Maxwell's Equations in terms of EM Potentials-Lorentz Gauge-Coulomb

Gauge- Boundary Conditions at Interfaces-Reflection and Refraction-Fresnel's Laws-

Brewster's Law & Degree of Polarization-Total Internal Reflection and Critical Angle-

Reflection from a Metal Surface-Wave Guides-Rectangular Wave Guide

Unit V

Fluid equations for plasma, equilibrium and stability: Relation of plasma physics

to ordinary electromagnetics, the fluid equations for plasma, fluid drifts perpendicular

and parallel to B, the plasma approximation. Hydromagnetic equilibrium, the concept of

Β, diffusion of magnetic field into a plasma, Classification of instabilities, two stream and

gravitational instabilities.

PAPER - XIV

NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE PHYSICS

Unit - I

Properties of nuclear force - Deutron ground state properties - square well

solution for the deuteron - Neutron proton scattering at low energies - scattering length -

phase shift - Proton proton scattering at low energies - Exchange forces - non-central

forces - meson theory of nuclear forceUnit - II

Binding energies of nuclei - Liquid drop model (Weizacker's semi empirical

mass formula) - Bohr-Wheeler theory of fission - Evidences for shell effects (Magic

numbers) - Spin orbit coupling of an electron bound in an atom - spin orbit coupling in

nuclei - single particle shell model - parabolic and square well potential - Predictions of

shell model (stability, spin and parities of ground state, magnetic moments, nuclear

isomerism)

Unit - III

Alpha spectrum and fine structure - alpha decay paradox (barrier penetration) -

Beta decay spectrum - Pauli's neutrino hypothesis - Fermi's theory of beta decay -

selection rules for beta decay - parity non conservation in beta decay - gamma ray

emission - selection rules - multipole radiation - internal conversion - nuclear isomerism

Unit - IV

Kinds of nuclear reactions - conservation laws - nuclear cross section - partial

wave analysis of reaction cross section - compound nucleus - reciprocity theorem -

resonance scattering and reaction cross sections - Breit Wigner dispersion formula

Unit - V

Classification of elementary particles - Fundamental interactions - Quantum

number of individual particles (orbital, spin, isospin, strangeness) - Parity - Charge

conjugation - law of conservation of leptons - law of conservation of baryons -

symmetries and conservation laws - (CPT Theorem) - SU(3) multiplets of Hadrons -

Gellmann Okubo mass formula for SU(3) multiplets

DIPLOMA PAPER I

FUNDAMENTALS OF NANOSCALE SCIENCE

Unit I: Basics of Nanotechnology I

Background to Nanotechnology - scientific revolutions - types of

nanotechnology and nanomachines - atomic structure molecules & phases - molecular

and atomic size - surfaces and dimensional space - top down and bottom up Nanoscale

formation

Unit II: Forces between atoms and molecules

Strong intermolecular forces - covalent and coulomb interactions - interactions

involving polar molecules and polarization - weak intermolecular forces and total

intermolecular pair potentials - Van der Waals forces - repulsive forces; special

interactions such as hydrogen -bonding, hydrophobic and hydrophilic interactions

Unit III: Nanostructures and their properties

Definition of nano systems - dimensionality and size dependent phenomena in

Quantum dots, and Quantum wires - size dependent variation in magnetic, electronic

transport properties

Unit IV: High vacuum technology

Evaporation theory - different sources for evaporation - working principles of

rotary and diffusion pumps - cryogenic pumps - cryo sorption and getter pumps -

vacuum materials

DIPLOMA PAPER II

NANOMATERIALS SYNTHESIS

Unit I: Sol-gel processing

Fundamentals of sol-gel process - sol-gel synthetic methods for oxides - other

inorganics and nano composites - the Pecheni method - silica gel - Zirconia and Yttrium

gel - aluminosilicate gel - polymer nano composites

Unit II: Film deposition methods

Introduction - fundamentals of film deposition - thermal evaporation - molecular

beam epitaxy - pulsed laser deposition - sputter deposition - chemical vapour deposition

- layer by layer growth and ultra thin films - chemical solution deposition - Langmuir

Blodgelt films.

Unit III: Synthesis of nanostructures

Surface Chemistry and its role to prepare quantum dots - Polymer as quantum dot

size stabilizer - One-dimensional (1D) by Spontaneous Growth - 1D structure by VLS

and SLS Growth - Template Assisted Growth - Electrochemical growth of 1D structures

Unit IV: New forms of carbon

Types of nanotubes - formation of nanotubes - methods and reactants - arcing in

the presence of cobalt - laser methods - ball milling - chemical vapour deposition

methods - properties of nano tubes - plasma arcing - electro deposition - pyrolytic

synthesis - Zeolites and templated powders layered silicates.

DIPLOMA PAPER III

CHARACTERIZATION AND APPLICATION OF NANO MATERIALS

Unit I: Nano characterizing tool 1

Working of Atomic Force Microscopy - Mode of operations (qualitative) and its

application - X-Ray diffraction basics and its application to Size Analysis of

nanomaterials - NMR Basics and application to Nanomaterials

Unit II: Nano characterizing tool 2

Scanning Electron Microscope: Theory- Instrumental setup and its application -

Low KV SEM and its application - Low temperature SEM and its application - working

of electron probe micro analysis and its application in elemental analysis - EDX spectra

Important material systems - optical process in semiconductors - optical process

in quantum wells - semiconducting optoelectronic devices - organic optoelectronic

devices (qualitative)

Unit III: Applications of nanomaterials

Quantum dot IR photo detectors- Quantum dot lasers - Synthesis of Zinc oxide

nanomaterials and its application - Synthesis of group three nitride nanostructures and

their applications - SK growth of germanium dots on silicon and its application.

Unit IV: Cell Biology (quantitatively)

Amino acids, Protein structure: Primary, Secondary, teritary, structure of Nucleic

acids - Nucleosides and Nucleotides - physical properties of nucleosides & nucleotides -

base pair - mismatch base pair - stacking - Backbone of Nucleic acids

Antibodies and their use in nano based drug delivery and imaging - Tumor

targeted drum delivery.

DIPLOMA PAPER IV

PRACTICALS

1. Preparation of nano particles by chemical method.

2. Preparation of nano materials by vacuum coating unit.

3. Preparation of nano particles by ball milling method.

4. Processing of particles by plasma torch

5. Characterization of size of nano particles.

6. Characterization of nano particles by using LCR bridge.

7. Construction of virtual bio nanobulas.

8. Interactions of water molecules with bio nanotubes.

9. Polymer nanocomposite