M. Sc. (Physics):Liquid Crystals:Fabrication of Integrated CircuitsThapar University
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Physics Lab I
Fundamentals of Computer Science and C Programming
Condensed Matter Physics
Experimental Techniques in Physics
Atomic and Molecular Physics
Physics Lab II
Physics Lab III
Fabrication of Integrated Circuits
Crystal Growth: Czochralski and Bridgeman techniques, Float zone growth, Distribution coefficient, zone refining, Wafer preparation and specifications.
Epitaxy: Importance of lattice matching in epitaxy, CVD of Si, Thermodynamics of vapour phase growth, Defects in epitxial growth, MBE technology.
Diffusion: Ficks diffusion equation in one dimension, Atomistic models of diffusion, Analytic solution of Ficks’s law for different cases, Diffusivities of common dopants in Si and SiO2 . Diffusion enhancements and retardation.
Thermal Oxidation: Deal-Grove model of oxidation, Linear and Parabolic oxidation rate coefficients, Effect of dopant during oxidation, Oxidation induced defects.
Ion Implantation: Channeling and projected range of ions, Implantation damage, Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA).
Metalization applications: Gates and interconnections, Metalization choice, metals, Alloys and silicides, Deposition techniques, Metallization problems, Step coverage, Electromigration.
Etching: Dry and wet chemical etching, Reactive plasma etching, Ion enhanced etching and ion induced etching, Plasma etchers and Barrel reactors.
Optical lithography: Photoresists, contact and proximity printers, projection printers, Mask alignment, X-ray and electron beam lithography.
Fundamental considerations of IC processing: Building individual layers, Junction and Trench isolation of devices, NMOS IC technology, CMOS IC technology, Bipolar IC technology,