# Master of Science (IT) (M.Sc.IT) LE / II nd Year

NICE Technologies
In Bangalore

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## Important information

- Master
- Bangalore
- Duration:

1 Year

Where and when

Starts | Location |
---|---|

On request |
BangaloreS.I.N. Complex,Hesarghatta., 560088, Karnataka, India See map |

## Frequent Asked Questions

**· Requirements**

Graduate in relevant subject

## Course programme

Advance Java

UNIT-I Fundamentals of Object-oriented Programming. : Introduction, Object-

OrientedProgramming. Basic concepts of object-oriented programming,

Benefits of OOP, Applications of OOP. JAVA Evolution: Java History. Java

Features, How Java Differs from C and C++, JavaInternet, Java and World

Wide Web, Web Browsers, Hardware and Software Requirements, Java

Support Systems. Java Environment .Overview of Java Language:

Introduction, Simple Java Program, More of Java, Application with .Two

Classes, Java Program Structure, Java Tokens, Java Statements,

Implementing a Java Program, Java Virtual Machine, Command Line

Arguments, Programming Style.' Constants, Variables and Data Types:

Introduction, Contents, Variables, Data Types, Declaration of Variables,

Giving Values of Variables, Scope to Variables, Symbolic Constants, Type

Casting, Getting Values of Variables, Standard Default Values. Operators

and Expressions Decision Making and Branching: Introduction, Decision

Making with if-Statement, Simple if Statement, The it.... else Statement,

Nesting of it-, else Statements, The else if Ladder, The Switch

Statement. The?: Operator.

UNIT-II Decision Making and Looping: Introduction, The while Statement, The do

Statement, The for Statement. Jumps in Loops, Labelled Loops. Classes,

Objects and' Methods: Static Members, Nesting of Methods, Inheritance:

Extending a Class, Overriding Methods, Final Variables and Methods,

Final Classes, Finalizes Methods. Abstract Methods' and Classes, Visibility

Control.

UNIT-III Arrays, Strings And. Vectors: Arrays, One-Dimensional Arrays, Creating

An Array,Tow-Dimensional Arrays Strings, Vectors, Wrapper Classes.

Interfaces: Multiple Inheritance: Introduction, Defining Interfaces,

Extending Interfaces, Implementing Interfaces, Accessing Interface

Variables.

UNIT-IV Packages: Putting Classes Together: Introduction, Java API Packages,

Using SystemPackages, Naming Conventions, Creating Packages,

Accessing a Package, Using aPackage, Adding a Class to a Package,

Hiding Classes. Multithreaded

Programming: Introduction, Creating Threads, Extending the Thread

Class, Slopping and Blocking a Thread, Life Cycle of a Thread. Using

Thread Methods, Thread [Exceptions, Thread Priority, Synchronization,

Implementing the 'Run able' Interface.

UNIT-V Managing Input/Output Files in Java: Introduction, Concept of Streams,

Stream Classes, Bye Stream Classes, Character Stream Classes, Using

Streams, Other Useful 1Classes, Using the File Class. Input / Output

Exceptions, Creation of Files, Reading / Writing Characters. Reading /

Writing Bytes, Handling Primitive Data Types, Concatenating and Buffering

File;-., Random Access Files, Interactive Input and Output, Other Stream

Classes.

Paper - II

Microprocessor and Assembly Language

UNIT-I Computer Number Systems, Codes, and Digital Devices : Computer

Number System and Codes, Arithmetic Operations on Binary, Hex, and

BCD Numbers, Basic Digital Devices.

Computers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors - An Introduction

: Types of Computers, How Computers and Microcomputers are used,

Overview of Microcomputer Structure and Operation, Execution of a

Three-Instruction Program, Microprocessor Evolution and Types, The

8086 Microprocessor Family-Overview, 8086 Internal Architecture,

Introduction to Programming the 8086.

UNIT-II 8086 Family Assembly Language Programming - Introduction :

Program Development Steps, Constructing the Machine Codes for 8086

Instructions, Writing Programs for Use with an Assembler, Assembly

Language Program Development Tools.

Implementing Standard Program Structures in 8086 Assembly

Language : Simple Sequence Programs, Jumps. Flags, and Conditional

Jumps, If-Then, If-Then-Else, and Multiple If-Then-Else Programs, While-

Do-Programs, Repeat-Until Programs, Instruction Timing and Delay

Loops.

Strings, Procedures, and Macros : The 8086 String Instructions, Writing

and Using Procedures, Writing and Using Assembler Macros.

UNIT-III 8086 Instruction Descriptions and Assembler Directives: Instruction

Descriptions, Assembler Directives.

8086 System Connection Finding, and Troubleshooting : A Basic 8086

Microcomputer System, Using a Logic Analyzer to observe Microprocessor

Bus Signals, An Example Minimum node System, the SDK-86,

Troubleshooting a simple 8086 Based Micro Computer.

8086 Interrupts and Interrupt Applications: 8086 Interrupts and

Interrupt Responses, Hardware Interrupt Applications, 8254 Software-

Programmable Timer/Counter, 8259A Priority Interrupt Controller,

Software Interrupt Applications.

UNIT-IV Digital Interfacing : Programmable Parallel Ports and Handshake

Input/Output Interfacing a Microprocessor to Keyboards, Interfacing to

Alphanumeric Display, Interfacing Microcomputer Ports to High-Power

Devices, Optical Motor Shaft Encoders.

High-Level Language for System Programming : Introduction-A Simple

C Program Example, Program Development Tools for C, Programming in

C.

UNIT-V The 80286, 80386 and 80486 Microprocessors : Multiuser/ Multitasking

Operating System Concepts, The Intel 80286 Microprocessor, The Intel

80386 32-Bit Microprocessor, The Intel 80486 Microprocessor, New

Directions.

Paper - III

Numerical Methods and Statistical Analysis

UNIT-I Introduction to Numerical Computing: Introduction, Numeric Data,

Analog Computing, Digital Computing, Process of Numerical Computing,

Characteristics of Numerical Computing, Computational Environment, New

Trends in Numerical Computing, Mathematical Background.

Introduction to Computers and Computing Concepts: Introduction,

Evolution of Numerical Computing and Computers, Types of Computers,

Types of Computers, Computing Concepts, Computer Organisation,

Driving the Computer: The Software, Programming Languages, Interactive

Computing, Flow Charting, Structuring the Logic Using the Computer.

UNIT-II Computer Codes and Arithmetic : Introduction, Decimal System, Binary

System, Hexadecimal System, Octal System, Conversion of Numbers,

Representation of Numbers, Computer Arithmetic, Laws of Arithmetic.

Approximations and Errors in Computing: Introduction, Significant

Digits, Inherent Errors, Numerical Errors, Modelling Errors, Blunders,

Absolute and Relative Errors, Machine Epsilon, Error Propagation,

Conditioning and Stability, Convergence of Iterative Processes, Error

Estimation, Minimizing the Total Error, Pitfalls and Precautions.

Fortran Overview : Need and Scope, A Sample Program, FORTRAN

Constants, FORTRAN Variables, Subscripted Variables, Input/Output

Statements, Computations, Control of Execution, Subprograms, Intrinsic

Functions, Debugging, Testing and Documentation.

UNIT-III Roots of Nonlinear Equations : Introduction Methods of Solution,

Interative Methods, Starting and Stopping an Iterative Process, Evaluation

of Polynomials, Bisection Method, False Position Method, Newton-

Raphson Method, Secant Method, Fixed-Point Method, Determining all

Possible Roots, Systems of Nonlinear Equations, Roots of Polynomials,

Multiple Roots by Newton's Method, Complex Roots by Bairstow Method,

Muller's Method.

Direct Solution of Linear Equations : Need and Scope, Existence of

Solution, Solution by Elimination, Basic Gauss Elimination Method, Gauss

Elimination with Pivoting, Gauss-Jordan Method, Triangular Factorization

Methods, Round-off Errors and Refinement, III-Conditioned Systems,

Matrix Inversion Method.

Interative Solution of Linear Equations : Need and Scope, Jacobi

Iteration Method, Guass-Seidel Method, Method of Relaxation,

Convergence of Iteration Methods.

UNIT-IV Curve Fitting : Interpolation : Introduction, Polynomial Forms, Linear

Interpolation, Lagrange Interpolation Polynomial, Newton Interpolation

Polynomial Divided Difference Table, Interpolation with Equidistant Points,

Spline Interpolation, Chebyshev Interpolation Polynomial.

Curve Fitting : Regression : Introduction, Fitting Linear Equations, Fitting

Transcendental Equations, Fitting a Polynomial Function, Multiple Linear

Regression, III-Conditioning in Least-Squares Methods.

Numerical Differentiation : Need and Scope, Differentiating Continuous

Functions, Differentiating Tabulated Functions, Difference Tables,

Richardson Extrapolation.

Numerical Integration : Need and Scope, Newton-Cotes Methods,

Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson's 1/3 Rule, Simpson's 3/8 Rule, Higher Order

Rules, Romberg Integration, Gaussian Integration.

UNIT-V Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations : Need and

Scope, Taylor Series Method, Euler's Method, Heun's Method, Polygon

Method, Runge-Kutta, Methods, Accuracy of One-Step Methods, Multistep

Methods, Accuracy of Multistep Methods, Systems of Differential

Equations, Higher-Order Equations.

Boundary-value and Eigenvalue Problems : Need and Scope, Shooting

Method, Finite Difference Method, Solving Eigenvalue Problems,

Polynomial Method, Power Method.

Solution of Partial Differential Equations : Need and Scope, Deriving

Difference Equations, Elliptic Equations, Parabolic Equations, Hyperbolic

Equations.

Paper - IV

Artificial Intelligence

UNIT-I Overview of Artificial Intelligence : What is AI?, The Importance of AI,

Early Work in AI, AI and Related Fields.

Knowledge General Concepts : Introduction, Definition and Importance

of Knowledge, Knowledge-Based Systems, Representation of Knowledge,

Knowledge Organization, Knowledge Manipulation, Acquisition of

Knowledge.

Lisp and Other AI Programming Language : Introduction to LISP :

Syntax and Numeric Functions, Basic List Manipulation Functions in LISP,

Functions, Predicates, and Conditionals, Input, Output, and Local

Variables, Iteration and Recursion, Property Lists and Arrays,

Miscellaneous Topics, PROLOG and Other AI Programming Languages.

Formalized Symbolic Logics : Introduction, Syntax and Semantics for

Propositional Logic, Syntax and Semantics for FOPL, Properties of Wffs,

Conversion to Clausal Form, Inference Rules, The Resolution Principle,

No deductive Inference Methods, Representation using Rules.

UNIT-II Dealing with Inconsistencies and Uncertainties: Introduction, Truth

Maintenance Systems, Default Reasoning and the Closed World

Assumption, Predicate Completion and Circumscription, Modal and

Temporal Logics, Fuzzy Logic and Natural Language Computations.

Probabilistic Reasoning: Introduction, Bayesian Probabilistic Inference,

Possible World Representations, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Ad-Hoc

Methods, Heuristic Reasoning Methods.

Structured Knowledge: Graphs, Frames, and Related Structured :

Introduction, Associative Network, Frame Structure, Conceptual

Dependencies and Scripts.

UNIT-III Object-Oriented Representations: Introduction, Overview of Object-

Oriented Systems, Objects, Classes, Messages, and Methods, Simulation

Example Using an OOS Program, Object Oriented Languages and

Systems.

Search and Control Strategies: Introduction, Preliminary Concepts,

Examples of Search Problems, Uniformed or Blind Search, Informed

Search, Searching And-Or Graphs.

Matching Techniques : Introduction, Structures Used in Matching,

Measures for Matching, Matching Like Patterns, Partial Matching Fuzzy

Matching Algorithms, The RETE Matching Algorithm.

UNIT-IV Knowledge Organization and Management: Introduction, Indexing and

Retrieval Techniques, Integrating Knowledge in Memory, Memory

Organization Systems.

Natural Language Processing: Introduction, Overview of Linguistics,

Grammars and Languages, Basic Parsing Techniques, Sematic Analysis

and Representation structures, Natural Language Generation, Natural

Language Systems.

Pattern Recognition : Introduction, The Recognition and Classification

Process, Learning Classification Patterns, Recognizing and Understanding

Speech.

Visual Image Understanding: Introduction, Image Transformation and

Low-Level Processing, Intermediate-Level Image Processing, Describing

and Labeling Objects, High-Level Processing, Vision System

Architectures.

Expert Systems Architecture: Introduction, Rule-Based System

Architectures, Nonproduction System Architectures, Dealing with

Uncertainty, Knowledge Acquisition and Validation Knowledge System

Building Tools.

UNIT-V General Concepts in Knowledge Acquisition : Introduction, Types of

Learning, Knowledge Acquisition is Difficult, General Learning Model,

Performance Measures.

Early work in Machine Learning : Introduction, Perceptrons, Checker

Playing Example, Learning Automata, Genetic Algorithms, Intelligent

Editors.

Learning by Induction : Introduction, Basic Concepts, Some Definitions,

Generalization and Specialization, Inductive Bias, Example of an Inductive

Learner.

Examples of other Inductive Learners : Introduction, The ID3 System,

The LEX System, The INDUCE System, Learning Structure Concepts.

Analogical and Explanation-Based Learning : Introduction, Analogical

Reasoning and Learning, Examples of Analogical Learning Systems,

Explanation-Based Learning.

Paper - V

Computer Graphics

UNIT-I Introduction: Computer graphics, definition, classification & applications,

development of hardware & software for computer graphics.

Graphics System:Refresh Cathode ray tubes, Random and raster scan

devices, DVST, plasma panel displays, LED and LCD monitors, laser

devices, printers, plotters, display processors, raster and random scan

system.

UNIT-II Output primitives : DDA along with, Bresenhan's line drawing algorithm,

antialiasing, circle generation: Midpoint algorithms, ellipse, other curves,

character generation, area filling scan line algorithm, boundary fill flood fill

algorithm, attributes of output primitives line attributes, area fill attributes,

character attributes.

Two-dimensional Transformations : Translation, scaling rotation

reflection sheer, matrix representation and homogeneous coordinates,

composite transformations, transformation commands.

UNIT-III Windowing and Clipping : Viewing coordinates window, view port,

clipping, and window to view transformation line clipping Cohen

Sutherland algorithm polygon clipping: sutherland-hodgeman algorithm.

UNIT-IV Three-dimensional concepts: Three dimensional viewing, three

dimensional object representation: polygons, cured line & surfaces

quadrate (sphere, ellipsoid), surfaces, design of curves & surfaces,

bezier's methods, Bspling methods; three dimensional transformations:

translating, scaling composite transformation, rotation about arbitrary axis,

projection: parallel, perspective.

UNIT-V Visible surface detection: Classification of visible-surface, detection

algorithms, back face detection, depth buffer method, A-buffer method,

scans line method, depth-sorting method.

Interactive input Device: Logical classification, Keyboards, touch panels,

light pens, joysticks, mouse, trackball digitizers, tablets.

Illumination and shading: Light sources, diffuse reflection, secular

reflection, reflected light, texture, shadows, light intensity, intensity levels,

surface shading, constant intensity, gouraud shading, phong shading.

Paper - VI

Simulation and Modeling

UNIT-I System Models : The Concepts of a System, System Environment,

Stochastic Activities, Continuous and Discrete Systems, System Modeling,

Static Physical Models, Dynamic Physical Models, Static Mathematical

Models, Dynamic Mathematical Models, Principles Used in Modeling,

System Studies : Subsystems, A Corporate Model, Environment

Segment, Production Segment, Management Segment. The Full

Corporate Model, Types of System Study, System Analysis, System

Design, System Postulation

System Simulation : The Technique of Simulation, The Monte Carlo

Method, Comparison of Simulation and Analytical Methods Experimental

Nature of Simulation, Types of System Simulation, Numerical Computation

Technique for Continuous Models, Numerical Computation Technique for

Discrete Models, Distributed Lag Models, Cobweb Models, Progress of a

Simulation Study

UNIT-II Continuous System Simulation : Continuous System Models,

Differential Equations, Analog Computers, Analog Methods, Hybrid

Computers Digital-Analog Simulators, Continuous System Simulation

Languages (CSSLs), CSMP III, Hybrid. Simulation, Feedback Systems,

Simulation of an Autopilot, Interactive Systems Real-Time Simulation

System Dynamics : Historical Background, Exponential Growth Models,

Exponential Decay Models, Modified Exponential Growth Models , Logistic

Curves, Generalization of Growth Models, System Dynamics Diagrams,

Simple System Dynamics Diagrams, Multi-Segment Models,

Representation of Time Delays, Feedback in Socio-Economic Systems, A

Biological Example, World Models, The DYNAMO Language

UNIT-III Probability Concepts In Simulation : Stochastic Variables, Discrete

Probability Functions, Continuous Probability Functions, Measures of

Probability of continuous Probability Functions, Continuous Uniformly

Distributed Random Numbers, Computer Generation of Random

Numbers, A Uniform Random Number Generator, Generating Discrete

Distributions, Non-Uniform Continuously Distributed Random Numbers.

The Rejection Method

Arrival Patterns And Service Times : Congestion in Systems, Arrival

Patterns, Poisson Arrival Patterns, The Exponential Distribution, The

Coefficient of Variation, The Erlang Distribution, The Hyper-Exponential

Distribution, Service Times, The Normal Distribution, Queuing Disciplines,

Measures of Queues, Methematical Solutions of Queuing Problems,

Utilization as a Design Factor, Grade of Service,

Discrete System Simulation : Discrete Events, Representation of Time,

Generation of Arrival Patterns, Simulation of a Telephone System,

Delayed Calls, Simulation Programming Tasks, Gathering Statistics,

Counters and Summary Statistics, Measuring Utilization and Occupancy,

Recording Distributions and Transit Times, Discrete Simulation

Languages.

UNIT-IV Introduction to GPSS : GPSS Programs, General Description, Action

Times, Succession of Events, Choice of Paths, Simulation of a

Manufacturing Shop, Facilities and Storages, Gathering Statistics,

Conditional Transfers, Program Control Statements,

GPSS Examples : Priorities and Parameters, Standard Numerical

Attributes, Functions, Simulation of a Supermarket, Transfer Modes, Logic

Switches, Testing Conditions, GPSS Model of a Simple Telephone

System, Set Operations

UNIT-V Introduction to Simscript : Simscript Programs, Simscript System

Concepts, Organization of a Simscript Program, Names and Labels,

Simscript Statements, Defining the System, Defining the Telephone

System Model, Referencing Variables, The MAIN Routine, The Arrival

Event, The Timing Routine, The Disconnect Event, The Closing Event,

Management of Sets in Simscript : Definition of Sets in Simscript, Set

Organization, Set Controls, Telephone System Model, Gathering Statistics

in Simscript, Searching Arrays, Searching Sets.

Simulation Programming Techniques: Entity Types, List Processing,

Data Structures in SimScript, Data Structures in GPSS, Implementation of

Activities, Simultanous Events, Conditional Events, Event Scanning,

Execution of Simulation Algorithm in Simscript, Execution of Simulation

Algorithm in GPSS.

Analysis of Simulation Output : Nature of the Problem, Estimation

Methods, Simulation Run Statistics, Replication of Runs, Elimination of

Initial Bise, Batch Means, Regenerative Techniques, Time Series Analysis,

Spectral Analysis, Autoregressive Processes.

Paper - VII

Software Engineering

UNIT-I Introduction: The software problem, software engineering problem, the

software engineering approach, definitions of S.E. Goals of S.E.

Software Processes: Processes, projects and products, component

software processes, characteristics of a software process, software

Development Process, project management process, software

configuration management process, and process management process.

UNIT - II Software requirement Analysis and Specification: Software

requirement, need for SRS, requirement process, problem analysis,

analysis issues. Informal approach, structured analysis, object oriented

modeling, other modeling approaches, prototyping, requirement

specification, characteristics of an SRS, component of an SRS,

specification languages, structure of a requirement document, validation,

requirement reviews, other method metrics, size measures, quality

metrics.

UNIT - III Planning a software project: Cost estimation, uncertainties in cost

estimation, building cost estimation models, on size estimation, COCOMO

model, project scheduling, average duration estimation, project scheduling

and milestones, staffing and personnel planning, ray Leigh curve,

personnel plan, team structure, software configuration management plans,

quality assurance plans, verification and validation, project monitoring

plans, risk management.

UNIT - IV Function Oriented Design: Design principles, coupling, cohesion, design

notation and specification, structured design methodology, verification,

network metrics, stability metrics, information flow metrics Software

Testing

Methods: Software testing fundamentals, test case design, white box

testing, control structure-testing, black box testing, testing for specialized

environments.

UNIT - V Software Testing Strategies: A Strategic Approach to software testing,

strategic issues, unit testing, integration testing, validation testing, system

testing, the art of debugging.

UNIT-I Fundamentals of Object-oriented Programming. : Introduction, Object-

OrientedProgramming. Basic concepts of object-oriented programming,

Benefits of OOP, Applications of OOP. JAVA Evolution: Java History. Java

Features, How Java Differs from C and C++, JavaInternet, Java and World

Wide Web, Web Browsers, Hardware and Software Requirements, Java

Support Systems. Java Environment .Overview of Java Language:

Introduction, Simple Java Program, More of Java, Application with .Two

Classes, Java Program Structure, Java Tokens, Java Statements,

Implementing a Java Program, Java Virtual Machine, Command Line

Arguments, Programming Style.' Constants, Variables and Data Types:

Introduction, Contents, Variables, Data Types, Declaration of Variables,

Giving Values of Variables, Scope to Variables, Symbolic Constants, Type

Casting, Getting Values of Variables, Standard Default Values. Operators

and Expressions Decision Making and Branching: Introduction, Decision

Making with if-Statement, Simple if Statement, The it.... else Statement,

Nesting of it-, else Statements, The else if Ladder, The Switch

Statement. The?: Operator.

UNIT-II Decision Making and Looping: Introduction, The while Statement, The do

Statement, The for Statement. Jumps in Loops, Labelled Loops. Classes,

Objects and' Methods: Static Members, Nesting of Methods, Inheritance:

Extending a Class, Overriding Methods, Final Variables and Methods,

Final Classes, Finalizes Methods. Abstract Methods' and Classes, Visibility

Control.

UNIT-III Arrays, Strings And. Vectors: Arrays, One-Dimensional Arrays, Creating

An Array,Tow-Dimensional Arrays Strings, Vectors, Wrapper Classes.

Interfaces: Multiple Inheritance: Introduction, Defining Interfaces,

Extending Interfaces, Implementing Interfaces, Accessing Interface

Variables.

UNIT-IV Packages: Putting Classes Together: Introduction, Java API Packages,

Using SystemPackages, Naming Conventions, Creating Packages,

Accessing a Package, Using aPackage, Adding a Class to a Package,

Hiding Classes. Multithreaded

Programming: Introduction, Creating Threads, Extending the Thread

Class, Slopping and Blocking a Thread, Life Cycle of a Thread. Using

Thread Methods, Thread [Exceptions, Thread Priority, Synchronization,

Implementing the 'Run able' Interface.

UNIT-V Managing Input/Output Files in Java: Introduction, Concept of Streams,

Stream Classes, Bye Stream Classes, Character Stream Classes, Using

Streams, Other Useful 1Classes, Using the File Class. Input / Output

Exceptions, Creation of Files, Reading / Writing Characters. Reading /

Writing Bytes, Handling Primitive Data Types, Concatenating and Buffering

File;-., Random Access Files, Interactive Input and Output, Other Stream

Classes.

Paper - II

Microprocessor and Assembly Language

UNIT-I Computer Number Systems, Codes, and Digital Devices : Computer

Number System and Codes, Arithmetic Operations on Binary, Hex, and

BCD Numbers, Basic Digital Devices.

Computers, Microcomputers, and Microprocessors - An Introduction

: Types of Computers, How Computers and Microcomputers are used,

Overview of Microcomputer Structure and Operation, Execution of a

Three-Instruction Program, Microprocessor Evolution and Types, The

8086 Microprocessor Family-Overview, 8086 Internal Architecture,

Introduction to Programming the 8086.

UNIT-II 8086 Family Assembly Language Programming - Introduction :

Program Development Steps, Constructing the Machine Codes for 8086

Instructions, Writing Programs for Use with an Assembler, Assembly

Language Program Development Tools.

Implementing Standard Program Structures in 8086 Assembly

Language : Simple Sequence Programs, Jumps. Flags, and Conditional

Jumps, If-Then, If-Then-Else, and Multiple If-Then-Else Programs, While-

Do-Programs, Repeat-Until Programs, Instruction Timing and Delay

Loops.

Strings, Procedures, and Macros : The 8086 String Instructions, Writing

and Using Procedures, Writing and Using Assembler Macros.

UNIT-III 8086 Instruction Descriptions and Assembler Directives: Instruction

Descriptions, Assembler Directives.

8086 System Connection Finding, and Troubleshooting : A Basic 8086

Microcomputer System, Using a Logic Analyzer to observe Microprocessor

Bus Signals, An Example Minimum node System, the SDK-86,

Troubleshooting a simple 8086 Based Micro Computer.

8086 Interrupts and Interrupt Applications: 8086 Interrupts and

Interrupt Responses, Hardware Interrupt Applications, 8254 Software-

Programmable Timer/Counter, 8259A Priority Interrupt Controller,

Software Interrupt Applications.

UNIT-IV Digital Interfacing : Programmable Parallel Ports and Handshake

Input/Output Interfacing a Microprocessor to Keyboards, Interfacing to

Alphanumeric Display, Interfacing Microcomputer Ports to High-Power

Devices, Optical Motor Shaft Encoders.

High-Level Language for System Programming : Introduction-A Simple

C Program Example, Program Development Tools for C, Programming in

C.

UNIT-V The 80286, 80386 and 80486 Microprocessors : Multiuser/ Multitasking

Operating System Concepts, The Intel 80286 Microprocessor, The Intel

80386 32-Bit Microprocessor, The Intel 80486 Microprocessor, New

Directions.

Paper - III

Numerical Methods and Statistical Analysis

UNIT-I Introduction to Numerical Computing: Introduction, Numeric Data,

Analog Computing, Digital Computing, Process of Numerical Computing,

Characteristics of Numerical Computing, Computational Environment, New

Trends in Numerical Computing, Mathematical Background.

Introduction to Computers and Computing Concepts: Introduction,

Evolution of Numerical Computing and Computers, Types of Computers,

Types of Computers, Computing Concepts, Computer Organisation,

Driving the Computer: The Software, Programming Languages, Interactive

Computing, Flow Charting, Structuring the Logic Using the Computer.

UNIT-II Computer Codes and Arithmetic : Introduction, Decimal System, Binary

System, Hexadecimal System, Octal System, Conversion of Numbers,

Representation of Numbers, Computer Arithmetic, Laws of Arithmetic.

Approximations and Errors in Computing: Introduction, Significant

Digits, Inherent Errors, Numerical Errors, Modelling Errors, Blunders,

Absolute and Relative Errors, Machine Epsilon, Error Propagation,

Conditioning and Stability, Convergence of Iterative Processes, Error

Estimation, Minimizing the Total Error, Pitfalls and Precautions.

Fortran Overview : Need and Scope, A Sample Program, FORTRAN

Constants, FORTRAN Variables, Subscripted Variables, Input/Output

Statements, Computations, Control of Execution, Subprograms, Intrinsic

Functions, Debugging, Testing and Documentation.

UNIT-III Roots of Nonlinear Equations : Introduction Methods of Solution,

Interative Methods, Starting and Stopping an Iterative Process, Evaluation

of Polynomials, Bisection Method, False Position Method, Newton-

Raphson Method, Secant Method, Fixed-Point Method, Determining all

Possible Roots, Systems of Nonlinear Equations, Roots of Polynomials,

Multiple Roots by Newton's Method, Complex Roots by Bairstow Method,

Muller's Method.

Direct Solution of Linear Equations : Need and Scope, Existence of

Solution, Solution by Elimination, Basic Gauss Elimination Method, Gauss

Elimination with Pivoting, Gauss-Jordan Method, Triangular Factorization

Methods, Round-off Errors and Refinement, III-Conditioned Systems,

Matrix Inversion Method.

Interative Solution of Linear Equations : Need and Scope, Jacobi

Iteration Method, Guass-Seidel Method, Method of Relaxation,

Convergence of Iteration Methods.

UNIT-IV Curve Fitting : Interpolation : Introduction, Polynomial Forms, Linear

Interpolation, Lagrange Interpolation Polynomial, Newton Interpolation

Polynomial Divided Difference Table, Interpolation with Equidistant Points,

Spline Interpolation, Chebyshev Interpolation Polynomial.

Curve Fitting : Regression : Introduction, Fitting Linear Equations, Fitting

Transcendental Equations, Fitting a Polynomial Function, Multiple Linear

Regression, III-Conditioning in Least-Squares Methods.

Numerical Differentiation : Need and Scope, Differentiating Continuous

Functions, Differentiating Tabulated Functions, Difference Tables,

Richardson Extrapolation.

Numerical Integration : Need and Scope, Newton-Cotes Methods,

Trapezoidal Rule, Simpson's 1/3 Rule, Simpson's 3/8 Rule, Higher Order

Rules, Romberg Integration, Gaussian Integration.

UNIT-V Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations : Need and

Scope, Taylor Series Method, Euler's Method, Heun's Method, Polygon

Method, Runge-Kutta, Methods, Accuracy of One-Step Methods, Multistep

Methods, Accuracy of Multistep Methods, Systems of Differential

Equations, Higher-Order Equations.

Boundary-value and Eigenvalue Problems : Need and Scope, Shooting

Method, Finite Difference Method, Solving Eigenvalue Problems,

Polynomial Method, Power Method.

Solution of Partial Differential Equations : Need and Scope, Deriving

Difference Equations, Elliptic Equations, Parabolic Equations, Hyperbolic

Equations.

Paper - IV

Artificial Intelligence

UNIT-I Overview of Artificial Intelligence : What is AI?, The Importance of AI,

Early Work in AI, AI and Related Fields.

Knowledge General Concepts : Introduction, Definition and Importance

of Knowledge, Knowledge-Based Systems, Representation of Knowledge,

Knowledge Organization, Knowledge Manipulation, Acquisition of

Knowledge.

Lisp and Other AI Programming Language : Introduction to LISP :

Syntax and Numeric Functions, Basic List Manipulation Functions in LISP,

Functions, Predicates, and Conditionals, Input, Output, and Local

Variables, Iteration and Recursion, Property Lists and Arrays,

Miscellaneous Topics, PROLOG and Other AI Programming Languages.

Formalized Symbolic Logics : Introduction, Syntax and Semantics for

Propositional Logic, Syntax and Semantics for FOPL, Properties of Wffs,

Conversion to Clausal Form, Inference Rules, The Resolution Principle,

No deductive Inference Methods, Representation using Rules.

UNIT-II Dealing with Inconsistencies and Uncertainties: Introduction, Truth

Maintenance Systems, Default Reasoning and the Closed World

Assumption, Predicate Completion and Circumscription, Modal and

Temporal Logics, Fuzzy Logic and Natural Language Computations.

Probabilistic Reasoning: Introduction, Bayesian Probabilistic Inference,

Possible World Representations, Dempster-Shafer Theory, Ad-Hoc

Methods, Heuristic Reasoning Methods.

Structured Knowledge: Graphs, Frames, and Related Structured :

Introduction, Associative Network, Frame Structure, Conceptual

Dependencies and Scripts.

UNIT-III Object-Oriented Representations: Introduction, Overview of Object-

Oriented Systems, Objects, Classes, Messages, and Methods, Simulation

Example Using an OOS Program, Object Oriented Languages and

Systems.

Search and Control Strategies: Introduction, Preliminary Concepts,

Examples of Search Problems, Uniformed or Blind Search, Informed

Search, Searching And-Or Graphs.

Matching Techniques : Introduction, Structures Used in Matching,

Measures for Matching, Matching Like Patterns, Partial Matching Fuzzy

Matching Algorithms, The RETE Matching Algorithm.

UNIT-IV Knowledge Organization and Management: Introduction, Indexing and

Retrieval Techniques, Integrating Knowledge in Memory, Memory

Organization Systems.

Natural Language Processing: Introduction, Overview of Linguistics,

Grammars and Languages, Basic Parsing Techniques, Sematic Analysis

and Representation structures, Natural Language Generation, Natural

Language Systems.

Pattern Recognition : Introduction, The Recognition and Classification

Process, Learning Classification Patterns, Recognizing and Understanding

Speech.

Visual Image Understanding: Introduction, Image Transformation and

Low-Level Processing, Intermediate-Level Image Processing, Describing

and Labeling Objects, High-Level Processing, Vision System

Architectures.

Expert Systems Architecture: Introduction, Rule-Based System

Architectures, Nonproduction System Architectures, Dealing with

Uncertainty, Knowledge Acquisition and Validation Knowledge System

Building Tools.

UNIT-V General Concepts in Knowledge Acquisition : Introduction, Types of

Learning, Knowledge Acquisition is Difficult, General Learning Model,

Performance Measures.

Early work in Machine Learning : Introduction, Perceptrons, Checker

Playing Example, Learning Automata, Genetic Algorithms, Intelligent

Editors.

Learning by Induction : Introduction, Basic Concepts, Some Definitions,

Generalization and Specialization, Inductive Bias, Example of an Inductive

Learner.

Examples of other Inductive Learners : Introduction, The ID3 System,

The LEX System, The INDUCE System, Learning Structure Concepts.

Analogical and Explanation-Based Learning : Introduction, Analogical

Reasoning and Learning, Examples of Analogical Learning Systems,

Explanation-Based Learning.

Paper - V

Computer Graphics

UNIT-I Introduction: Computer graphics, definition, classification & applications,

development of hardware & software for computer graphics.

Graphics System:Refresh Cathode ray tubes, Random and raster scan

devices, DVST, plasma panel displays, LED and LCD monitors, laser

devices, printers, plotters, display processors, raster and random scan

system.

UNIT-II Output primitives : DDA along with, Bresenhan's line drawing algorithm,

antialiasing, circle generation: Midpoint algorithms, ellipse, other curves,

character generation, area filling scan line algorithm, boundary fill flood fill

algorithm, attributes of output primitives line attributes, area fill attributes,

character attributes.

Two-dimensional Transformations : Translation, scaling rotation

reflection sheer, matrix representation and homogeneous coordinates,

composite transformations, transformation commands.

UNIT-III Windowing and Clipping : Viewing coordinates window, view port,

clipping, and window to view transformation line clipping Cohen

Sutherland algorithm polygon clipping: sutherland-hodgeman algorithm.

UNIT-IV Three-dimensional concepts: Three dimensional viewing, three

dimensional object representation: polygons, cured line & surfaces

quadrate (sphere, ellipsoid), surfaces, design of curves & surfaces,

bezier's methods, Bspling methods; three dimensional transformations:

translating, scaling composite transformation, rotation about arbitrary axis,

projection: parallel, perspective.

UNIT-V Visible surface detection: Classification of visible-surface, detection

algorithms, back face detection, depth buffer method, A-buffer method,

scans line method, depth-sorting method.

Interactive input Device: Logical classification, Keyboards, touch panels,

light pens, joysticks, mouse, trackball digitizers, tablets.

Illumination and shading: Light sources, diffuse reflection, secular

reflection, reflected light, texture, shadows, light intensity, intensity levels,

surface shading, constant intensity, gouraud shading, phong shading.

Paper - VI

Simulation and Modeling

UNIT-I System Models : The Concepts of a System, System Environment,

Stochastic Activities, Continuous and Discrete Systems, System Modeling,

Static Physical Models, Dynamic Physical Models, Static Mathematical

Models, Dynamic Mathematical Models, Principles Used in Modeling,

System Studies : Subsystems, A Corporate Model, Environment

Segment, Production Segment, Management Segment. The Full

Corporate Model, Types of System Study, System Analysis, System

Design, System Postulation

System Simulation : The Technique of Simulation, The Monte Carlo

Method, Comparison of Simulation and Analytical Methods Experimental

Nature of Simulation, Types of System Simulation, Numerical Computation

Technique for Continuous Models, Numerical Computation Technique for

Discrete Models, Distributed Lag Models, Cobweb Models, Progress of a

Simulation Study

UNIT-II Continuous System Simulation : Continuous System Models,

Differential Equations, Analog Computers, Analog Methods, Hybrid

Computers Digital-Analog Simulators, Continuous System Simulation

Languages (CSSLs), CSMP III, Hybrid. Simulation, Feedback Systems,

Simulation of an Autopilot, Interactive Systems Real-Time Simulation

System Dynamics : Historical Background, Exponential Growth Models,

Exponential Decay Models, Modified Exponential Growth Models , Logistic

Curves, Generalization of Growth Models, System Dynamics Diagrams,

Simple System Dynamics Diagrams, Multi-Segment Models,

Representation of Time Delays, Feedback in Socio-Economic Systems, A

Biological Example, World Models, The DYNAMO Language

UNIT-III Probability Concepts In Simulation : Stochastic Variables, Discrete

Probability Functions, Continuous Probability Functions, Measures of

Probability of continuous Probability Functions, Continuous Uniformly

Distributed Random Numbers, Computer Generation of Random

Numbers, A Uniform Random Number Generator, Generating Discrete

Distributions, Non-Uniform Continuously Distributed Random Numbers.

The Rejection Method

Arrival Patterns And Service Times : Congestion in Systems, Arrival

Patterns, Poisson Arrival Patterns, The Exponential Distribution, The

Coefficient of Variation, The Erlang Distribution, The Hyper-Exponential

Distribution, Service Times, The Normal Distribution, Queuing Disciplines,

Measures of Queues, Methematical Solutions of Queuing Problems,

Utilization as a Design Factor, Grade of Service,

Discrete System Simulation : Discrete Events, Representation of Time,

Generation of Arrival Patterns, Simulation of a Telephone System,

Delayed Calls, Simulation Programming Tasks, Gathering Statistics,

Counters and Summary Statistics, Measuring Utilization and Occupancy,

Recording Distributions and Transit Times, Discrete Simulation

Languages.

UNIT-IV Introduction to GPSS : GPSS Programs, General Description, Action

Times, Succession of Events, Choice of Paths, Simulation of a

Manufacturing Shop, Facilities and Storages, Gathering Statistics,

Conditional Transfers, Program Control Statements,

GPSS Examples : Priorities and Parameters, Standard Numerical

Attributes, Functions, Simulation of a Supermarket, Transfer Modes, Logic

Switches, Testing Conditions, GPSS Model of a Simple Telephone

System, Set Operations

UNIT-V Introduction to Simscript : Simscript Programs, Simscript System

Concepts, Organization of a Simscript Program, Names and Labels,

Simscript Statements, Defining the System, Defining the Telephone

System Model, Referencing Variables, The MAIN Routine, The Arrival

Event, The Timing Routine, The Disconnect Event, The Closing Event,

Management of Sets in Simscript : Definition of Sets in Simscript, Set

Organization, Set Controls, Telephone System Model, Gathering Statistics

in Simscript, Searching Arrays, Searching Sets.

Simulation Programming Techniques: Entity Types, List Processing,

Data Structures in SimScript, Data Structures in GPSS, Implementation of

Activities, Simultanous Events, Conditional Events, Event Scanning,

Execution of Simulation Algorithm in Simscript, Execution of Simulation

Algorithm in GPSS.

Analysis of Simulation Output : Nature of the Problem, Estimation

Methods, Simulation Run Statistics, Replication of Runs, Elimination of

Initial Bise, Batch Means, Regenerative Techniques, Time Series Analysis,

Spectral Analysis, Autoregressive Processes.

Paper - VII

Software Engineering

UNIT-I Introduction: The software problem, software engineering problem, the

software engineering approach, definitions of S.E. Goals of S.E.

Software Processes: Processes, projects and products, component

software processes, characteristics of a software process, software

Development Process, project management process, software

configuration management process, and process management process.

UNIT - II Software requirement Analysis and Specification: Software

requirement, need for SRS, requirement process, problem analysis,

analysis issues. Informal approach, structured analysis, object oriented

modeling, other modeling approaches, prototyping, requirement

specification, characteristics of an SRS, component of an SRS,

specification languages, structure of a requirement document, validation,

requirement reviews, other method metrics, size measures, quality

metrics.

UNIT - III Planning a software project: Cost estimation, uncertainties in cost

estimation, building cost estimation models, on size estimation, COCOMO

model, project scheduling, average duration estimation, project scheduling

and milestones, staffing and personnel planning, ray Leigh curve,

personnel plan, team structure, software configuration management plans,

quality assurance plans, verification and validation, project monitoring

plans, risk management.

UNIT - IV Function Oriented Design: Design principles, coupling, cohesion, design

notation and specification, structured design methodology, verification,

network metrics, stability metrics, information flow metrics Software

Testing

Methods: Software testing fundamentals, test case design, white box

testing, control structure-testing, black box testing, testing for specialized

environments.

UNIT - V Software Testing Strategies: A Strategic Approach to software testing,

strategic issues, unit testing, integration testing, validation testing, system

testing, the art of debugging.