MD in BiochemistryMAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES
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MD in Biochemistry
The broad goal of teaching & training of postgraduate students in Medical
Biochemistry is to make them understand the scientific basics of the life processes at the
molecular level and to orient them towards the applications of the knowledge acquired in
solving clinical problems. At the end of his/her training, the student shall be able to take up
a career in Teaching Institution or in diagnostic laboratory or in Research.
At the end of the course the students shall be able to:
1) Explain the structure, function & inter-relationships of bimolecules & their
deviation from normal & their consequences.
2) Summarize the fundamental aspects of enzymology & alteration on enzymatic
activity with reference to clinical applications.
3) Explain the molecular & biochemical basis of inherited disorders with their
4) Explain the mechanisms involved in maintenance of body fluids & pH
5) Integrate the various aspects of metabolism & their regulatory pathways.
6) Outline the molecular mechanisms of gene expression & regulation, the principles
of genetic engineering & their application in medicine.
7) Explain the molecular concept of body defenses & their applications in medicine
8) Explain the biochemical basis of environmental health hazards, biochemical basis
of cancer & Carcinogenesis.
9) Familiarize with the principles of various conventional & specialized laboratory
investigations & instrumentation analysis and interpretation of a given data.
10) Effectively organize & supervise diagnostic laboratory to ensure quality
Paper I (General Biochemistry and Instrumentation)
1) History & scope of Biochemistry.
2) Cell structure & biochemical functions .Membrane structure & functions.
3) Transport through biological cell membrane
4) Chemistry & biological importance of carbohydrates ,proteins & amino acids, lipids ,
nucleic acids, porphyrins glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins.
5) Chemistry of blood & hemoglobin, plasma proteins,Blood coagulation.
6) Enzymes & coenzymes -chemistry ,nomenclature properties & mode of action of
enzymes,Enzyme kinetics, factors affecting enzyme activity,enzyme
inhibitions,applications of enzymes & isoenzymes.
7) Bioenergetics & biological oxidation-General concept of oxidation &
reduction.Electron transport Chain (ETC)- functioning of ETC & inhibitors of ETC,
Oxidative phosphorylation,Uncouplers and theories of Biological oxidation &
8) Principle, working & applications of, a) Colorimetry b)Spectrophotometry c)Flame
photometry d) Flurometry e )Atomic absorption spectroscopy g) ultra centrifugation
9) Principle, types& applications of , a)Electrophoresis b)chromatography
10)Autoanalyzers, Blood gas analyzers
11)Automation in clinical chemistry
12)pH, electrodes & methods of pH determination.
13)Basics of Mass spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, chemiluminescence and
Electron - microscopy
14)Environmental Biochemistry - Definition, importance of pollution free & ecofriendly
environment, exposure to cold stress, exposure to heat , air pollution water pollution
& food pollution
15)Immunochemistry - The Immune system, Immunoglobins, antigen -antibody
mediated immunity, mononuclear phagocytes -macrophages ,elements of clinical
Paper- II: METABOLISM AND NUTRITION
1) Digestion & absorption from gastrointestinal tract.
2) Intermediary metabolism, metabolism of Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins , and Amino
acids , Nucleic acids,Hemoglobin, metabolic control, energy production & regulation.
3) Metabolic interrelationships & regulatory mechanisms
4) Metabolic changes during starvation
5) Energy metabolism-Calorimetry, BMR- its determination & factors affecting it, SDA
6) Macro & micro -elements & their role in health & disease, water metabolism & its
7) Vitamins- chemistry, biological importance , deficiency manifestations &
recommended daily allowance.
8) Principles of Nutrition -Balanced diet & its planning, Nutritive importance of various
food sources, Calorific value of food , toxins & additives , Obesity, Protein Energy
Malnutrition ( PEM)- Kwashirkor & Marasmus .
9) Diet in management of chronic diseases viz, Diabetes mellitus, Coronary artery
disease, Renal disorders, Cancer, Hypertension, Anemia ,Rickets & Osteomalacia.
10) Diet for over weight person, pregnant woman and during lactation
PAPER -III CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
1) Chemistry, composition & functions of lymph, CSF, ascitic fluid, pleural fluid, &
2) Urine formation, excretion & urine analysis.
3) Composition, chemistry & functions of specialized tissues like muscle, bone, nerve,
connective tissue, & brain adipose tissue.
4) Chemistry of respiration & acid base balance& imbalance
5) Hormones-: Communication among cells & tissues. Hormone- General mechanism of
action of hormones, chemistry, functions, synthesis of steroid hormones , polypeptide
hormones, & thyroid hormones. Chemistry & functions of hormones of pancreas, and
parathyroid. Local hormones. Clinical disorders of hormones, Hormone receptors.
6) Biochemistry of Diabetes mellitus, Atherosclerosis, Fatty liver, and obesity.
7) Organ function tests
a) Liver function tests
b) Kidney function tests
c) Thyroid function tests.
d) Adrenal function tests
e) Pancreatic function tests
f) Gastric function tests
8) Radioisotopes & their clinical applications.
9) Biochemistry of aging.
10)Neurochemistry in Health & Disease.
11) Biochemical changes in pregnancy & lactation.
12)Water & electrolytes balance & imbalance.
13) Total Quality Management of Laboratories.
a) Internal Quality control
b) External Quality control
c) Accreditation of laboratories
14)Basics of Medical statistics
15)Inborn errors of metabolism.
16)Biotrasformations of Xenobiotics
17)Basic concepts of Biochemical Defense Mechanisms
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY , BIOTECHNOLOGY & RECENT ADVANCES
IN CLINICAL BIOCHEMISTRY
1) Central dogma, genetic code, protein biosynthesis & its regulation.
2) DNA: structure, functions, replications, Mutation & repair of DNA,
Sequencing of nucleotides in DNA, Mitochondrial DNA, and DNA recombination.
3) RNA: composition, types, structure & functions.
4) Role of Nucleic acids in diagnosis of Molecular diseases & infectious diseases
5) Mitochondrial DNA & diseases.
6) Human Genome Project.
7) Genes & chromosomes, Gene mapping, Chromosome walking etc.
8)Gene expression & gene amplification & gene regulation, Oncogenes, &
biochemistry of cancer.
9) Genetic engineering: Recombinant DNA technology & its applications. Restriction
endonucleases, Plasmids, Cosmids, Gene cloning, Gene libraries.
10) Basics techniques in genetic engineering.
a) Isolation & purification of DNA, Methods of DNA assay.
b) Blotting techniques - Southern, Northern & Western blotting.
c) Polymerase chain reaction & its applications.
d) Ligase chain reaction & its applications.
11) Tumor markers & growth factors
12) Biotechnology: Gene therapy, Nucleic acid hybridization, and DNA probes,
Microarray of gene probes.
13) Genomics and Proteomics
14) Medical Bioinformatics
15) Lipid peroxidation, free radicals & antioxidants, Nitric oxide formation & its
metabolism & its role in Medicine.
16. )Biochemistry of AIDS
17.)Genetic control of Immunity
18.)Research Methodology & Medical ethics.
SYLLABUS FOR PRACTICALS :
1) All undergraduate practicals and routine emergency and special investigations
carried out in central clinical laboratory of the hospital,which are useful for
diagnosis and prognosis of the disease.
2) Total Quality Management of Laboratory
a)Specimen collection , handling & storage of sample.
b) Methods of standardization & calibration.
c) Methods of quality control & assessment.
3) Fractionation & Identification of,
a) Amino acids b) Sugar c) Proteins d) Lipoproteins by
i) Thin Layer Chromatography ii) Paper chromatography (circular, Unidimensional&
two dimentional iii) Gel electrophoresis- agarose, starch, &
Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis iv) paper electrophoresis & cellulose
acetate paper electrophoresis .
4) a) Estimation of total activity of following enzymes .
i. LDH & seperation of its isoenzymes by Polyacryamide gel
electrophoresis, Cellulose acetate electrophoresis & quantitation by
iv. Alkaline phosphatase
v. Acid phosphatase
vii. Creatine kinase its Isoenzymes
b) Enzyme kinetics and Determination of Km value and effect of pH
substrate concentration & temperature on Enzyme activity.
c) Endocrinology: Estimation of Hormones.
5) Isolation of DNA and PCR technique.
6) Estimation of serum lipid profile .
i) Serum total cholesterol
ii) Serum HDL cholesterol
iii) Serum VLDL & LDL
iv) Serum Triglycerides
v) Serum Phopholipids
7) Estimation of Fe & Total Iron Binding capacity,& ferritin
8) Estimation of Glycosylated Hb.
9) Body fluid analysis - Urine
- Ascitic fluid
- Pleural fluid
10) Estimation of VMA.
11) Estimation of Na, K & Lithium by Flame photometer.
The dissertation is compulsory for candidates registered for P.G.
degree & should include candidates own work under a supervisor , qualified for the
purpose & recognized as a P.G. teacher by the University. The subject of dissertation
along with synopsis (about 200 words) signed by P.G. teacher, H.O.D.& Head of the
Institution will be submitted to the University. Ethics Committee of the Institution
must approve the topic of dissertation.
Completed dissertation will be submitted to the University in the 5th term, that
is, 6 month before the date of final examination.