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## Important information

- Bachelor
- Raipur
- Duration:

4 Years

Starts | Location |
---|---|

On request |
Raipur1st floor,parasnagar chowk,behind shivmandir raipur, (C.G), 492001, Chhattisgarh, India See map |

## Course programme

AVAILABLE IN WEBSITE,

**Part I (Civil)**

**BASIC CIVIL ENGINEERING - (TC 1.1)**

**Introduction: **

Engineering, Civil Engineering - History and Development of Civil Engineering, Scope of Civil Engineering, Functions of Civil Engineers.

**Construction Materials: **

Characteristics of good building materials such as stones, bricks, A.C. Sheets, G.I sheets and Ceramic tiles, timber, cement, aggregates and concrete.

**Surveying: **

Definition and purpose - classification, basic principles, measurement of length by chains and tapes, calculation of area of a plot, measurement of bearings and angles using a prismatic compass, leveling, contours and their applications, use of a transit theodolite.

**General Concepts Relating to Buildings: **

Selection of Site, Basic Functions of Buildings, Major Components of Buildings.

**Foundations: **

Purpose of foundation, bearing capacity of soils, types of foundations. Proper methods of construction of: brick masonry, hollow block masonry - beams, lintels, columns, flooring, damp proof course, surface finishes, doors and windows, roofing.

**Environmental Engineering: **

Sources of Water Supply, Water Requirements, Purification of Water InvolVing Sedimentation, Filtration and Disinfections.

**Sanitary Engineering: **

Definition of Terms, Collection and Disposal of Solid Wastes, Sewage Systems, Septic Tanks, Oxidation Ponds.

**Transportation Engineering: **

Importance of Roads, Classification of Highways, Cross Sections of Water Bound Macadam, Bituminous and Cement Concrete Roads, Traffic Signs and Signals.

Railways: Importance of Railways, Gauges, Components of a Permanent Way.

Bridges: Components of Culverts, Causeways, Slab Bridge, T-Beam and Slab Bridge, Suspension Bridge.

**Functions and General Layout of a Harbour **

**Dams:** Purpose of Dams, Types of Dams, Earth, Masonry and Concrete, Arch and Buttress Dams Selection of Site for a Dam.

**Irrigation Engineering: **

Definition of Irrigation, Types of Irrigation, canal Irrigation System.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Basic Civil Engineering", Johnson Victor, D and Esther Malini, Allied publishers Ltd. Madras.

2. "Basic Civil Engineering" Arunachalam N, , Pratheeba publishers, Coimbatore 2000.

3. "Basic Civil Engineering" Ramesh Babu, V, Anuradha Agencies, Kumbakonam 2001.

**TECHNICAL WRITING - (TC 1.2)**

**Study of Grammar: **

- Various Parts of speech

- Tenses

- Transformation of sentences Degree of comparison Active & Passive voice, Affirmatives,

- Negative

- Exclamatory.

- Conversion of simple sentences into compound and complex.

- Interchange of one part of speech for another.

- Direct and Indirect speech.

- Prepositions and prepositional phrases.

- Punctuation.

- Right use of articles.

- Pair of words and common errors.

**Business Correspondence: **

- General principle of business correspondence

- Writing different types of letters

- Enquiries

- Answers to enquiries

- Circular letters

- Complaints.

**Comprehension: **

- Comprehension of simple passages on scientific and technical subjects.

- Reports on accident in factories

- Work progress

- Repairs and damages,

- Rise and fall in production and selection of site, etc.

**Essays: **

An essay on a subject of current topics Science & Humanity

Atomic energy

Games & their role in Society.

**Recommended books: **

1. "Communication Skills" P. Prasad, S.K.Kataria &Sons ,New Delhi

2. "Business Correspondence & Report Writing", Sharma & Mohan, Tata McGraw Hill Co., New Delhi.

**ENGINEERING PHYSICS AND APPLIED MECHANICS (TC 1.3)**

**Units & Dimensions:** Fundamentals and derived units in SI system, Dimensions of physical quantities, Dimensional equation, checking the correctness of physical equations, Derivations of physical relation, Limitations of dimensional analysis.

**Equivalent Force Systems:** Replacement of force by equivalent couple and a force at other point, Resultant of a force system, Simplest resultants of coplanar force systems, Wrench resultant, Resultant of parallel force systems, Distributed force systems.

**Equilibrium Of Rigid Bodies:** Introduction, Different types of supports, Free body diagrams, Conditions of equilibrium, Different cases of equilibrium.

**Centroid And Center Of Gravity:** Location of centroid and center of gravity, Centroid of simple sections, Centroid of a composite line, Centroid of composite section, C.G. of composite-bodies.

**Friction:** Laws of dry friction or Coulomb Friction, Angle of friction, A block on a horizontal plane, Two mating blocks, one on horizontal plane and other connected to a wall, Cylinder resting on a floor and against a vertical wall~ Angle of repose, A body on an inclined plane, Cylinder on an inclined plane.

**Moment of Inertia (Second Moment of Area):** Introduction, Rectangular section, Triangular section, Circular section, Polar moment of inertia, Parallel axes theorem

**Simple Stresses And Strains:** Normal and shear stresses, Longitudinal strain, Lateral strain and Poisson's Ratio" Bars of varying cross-sections, bar subjected to various forces, Extension under self weight of bar, Shear stress and shear strain, Complementary shear stress, Volumetric stress and volumetric strain, Statically inderminate problems, Tensile test on mild steel, Strain energy and resilience, Sudden load, Impact loads, Stress concentration in members under tensile force, factor of safety.

**Plane Trusses:** Determination of support reactions, Determination of forces in members of the truss, Method of joints, Method of sections, and Graphical method.

**Shear Force And Bending Moment Diagrams:** Various types of beams, Shear force diagram of simply supported beam subjected to concentrated loads, S.F. Diagram of a simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, S.F. Diagram of a cantilever subjected to a concentrated load, S.F. Diagram of a cantilever subjected to a uniformly distributed load, Bending Moment Diagram of a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load, Bending Moment Diagram of a SS Beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, Bending Moment diagram of a cantilever subjected to a concentrated load, Bending Moment Diagram of a cantilever carrying a uniformly distributed load, S.F. and B.M. Diagrams of a beam with variable loading, S.F. and B.M. Diagrams of a beam subjected to a moment.

**Rotational & Simple Harmonic Motions:** Moment of inertia & its significance, Torque, Angular moment & their interrelation. Expression for K.E. of rotation, Simple harmonic motion Derivation of displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period & frequency, Expression for time period.

**Heat Transfer:** Three modes of heat transfer, Co-efficient of thermal conductivity, its determination by Searles & Disc method, Conduction through compound media (series & parallel for two materials), Heat radiation, Characteristics of heat radiation, Prevosts theory of heat exchange, Black Body Radiations, Emissivity & Absorptivity, Kirchoff's law & Stefan's law of radiation.

**Sound:** Waves, superposition & interference of waves, Acoustics of buildings & ultra sonics

**Electricity & Electromagnetism:** Ohm's law, current & resistance, D.C. circuits & Kirchoff's laws, Magnetism & electromagnetism.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Applied Physics" Eagle Publishers

**ENGINEERING MATHMATICS - (TC 1.4)**

**Algebra:** Logarithm, theory of indices and their usage, Solution of quadratic and simultaneous equations. Partial fractions: The denominator having linear and quadratic factors (repeated and nonrepeated).

**Binomial Theorem:** Statement without proof of the binomial theorem for positive integer index, binomial expansion and the general term. Statement of general Binomial theorem (expansion only) first and second order binomial approximation.

**Vector Algebra:** Definition, notation and rectangular resolution of a vector. Addition and subtraction of vectors. Scalar and vector products of two vectors.

**Trigonometry:** Trigonometric ratios: Definitions, Inverse Trigonometry function:

T-ratios of angles between 0° and 360°, Solution of simple trigonometric equation between 0° and 360° only. Sum/difference formulae (without proof) and their applications. T-ratios of multiples and submultiples of angles (2A, 3A, A/2 only), Sine and Cosine formulae

Co-ordinate Geometry: Point: Cartesian and polar co-ordinates and their conversion, distance between two points, internal and external division formulae (without proof), co-ordinate of centroid and in center (without proof), problems on locus. Distance & section formulae

**Straight-line:** Equations of a straight line in various standard forms, inter-section of straight lines, Angle between two straight lines. Perpendicular distance formula.

**Circle:** The equation of a circle in standard and general forms. Finding equation of a circle when:

(a) Its center and radius are given.

(b) Any three points on it are given

**Complex Number:** Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, & Division of Complex Number.

**Differential Calculus:** Rate measure, Calculation of errors, Newton's method of solving equations, Tangent and normal to a curve for explicit functions only, Maxima & Minima.

**Integral Calculus:** Simple problems on area bounded by a curve and axis and volume of a solid formed by revolution of an area about axes, Average and rms values

**Ordinary Differential Equations:** Definitions, First order and first-degree equations, Variable separable, Homogeneous and Exact equations and their solutions, Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Applied Mathematics''''K.K Malhotra, S.K Kataria & Sons, New Delhi.

**ENGINEERING DRAWING - (TC 1.5)**

**Handling Use and Care of Drawing Instruments and Materials:** Drawing instruments, Materials, Layout of drawing sheets

**Lettering Technique and Practice:** Instrumental single stroke lettering of 35mm and 70mm height in the ratio of 7:4 Free hand lettering (Alphabet and numerals) lower case and upper case, single stroke and block letters, vertical and inclined at 75 degree in different standards, series of 3, 5, 8 and 12mm heights in the ratio of 7:4

**Projection and Isometric Views:** Theory of projections (elaborate theoretical instructions), drawing 3 views of given objects (Non symmetrical objects may be selected for this exercise), Drawing 6 views of given objects (Non- symmetrical objects may be selected for this exercise), Identification of surfaces on drawn views and objects drawn, Exercises on missing surfaces and views, Orthographic drawing or interpretation of views, Introduction to third angle projections, Fundamentals of isometric projections (Theoretical instructions), Isometric views from 2 or 3 given orthographic views, Preparation of simple drawing of Furniture items like table, stool etc.

**Symbols and Conventions (1S1):** Civil Engineering sanitary fitting symbols, Electrical fitting symbols for domestic interior installations, Simple Building plan drawing with electrical and civil engineering symbols.

**Building Drawing:** Drawing plan, elevation & section of residential building (single & double stories). Free Hand Drawing showing placement, construction of different joints and anti-termite treatments.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "A Text Book of Engineering Drawing", J.S. Loyal, Eagle Publishers.

2. "Engineering Drawing" P.s.GiII, S.K.Kataria & Sons, New Delhi

**ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY - (TC 1.6)**

**Solid State Chemistry:** Introduction, Elements of Symmetry, Space Lattice and the Unit Cell, Miller Indices, Rules for Obtaining the Miller Indices of a Plane, Point Groups and Space Groups, X-Ray and Crystal Structure, Structure of Solids-Close Packing of Spheres, Types of Solids (Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals), Defects in the Solid State, Applications of Semiconductors.

**Thermodynamics:** Introduction, The Language of Thermodynamics, Heat and Work, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, First Law of Thermodynamics, Thermodynamics, Enthalpy Change as a Function of Temperature, Adiabatic Processes, Carnot's Cycle and Heat Engines, Entropy, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Free Energy Changes, Third Law of Thermodynamics, The Chemical Potential, Free Energy Changes and Chemical Equilibria.

**Phase Equilibria:** Introduction, Definition, Derivation of the Phase Rule, One-Component Systems, Two-Component Systems, The Nernst Distribution Law, Solid-Liquid Systems-Condensed Systems, Alloys,

**Electrode Potentials and Batteries:** Introduction, Electrode Potentials and Electromotive Force, Concentration Cells, Applications of EMF, Measurements, Polarization and Electrolysis, Commercial Cells.

**Corrosion and its Prevention:** Introduction, Corrosion of Metal in Gaseous Environments (Dry Corrosion), Wet Corrosion, Atmospheric Corrosion and Soil Corrosion, Protective Measure against Corrosion, Other forms, of Corrosion.

**Protective Coatings:** Introduction, Pretreatment of the Surface, Metallic Coatings, Nonmetallic Coatings, Organic Protective Coatings, Film-Forming Materials or Binders, Types of Paints and their uses, Defects in Paint Films.

**Fuels:** Introduction, Classification of Fuels, Primary, Solid Fuels, Primary Fuels (Liquids and Gases), Secondary Fuels and other Products Derived from Coal, Secondary Fuels Derived from Petroleum, Petrochemicals, Industrial Practice, Analysis and Testing of liquid and Gaseous Fuels, Utilization of Fuels, Combustion Calculations, Nuclear Fuels, Solar Power, Other Sources of Energy.

**High Polymers:** Introduction, Polymerization and Functionality, Nomenclature of Polymers, Chain Polymerization by Ionic Mechanisms, Coordination Polymerization, Polymerization Processes, Some Important Plastics, Polymer Degradation and Additives for Polymers, Structure and Properties, Molecular Weights of Polymers.

**Environmental Pollution and its Control:** Introduction, Water Pollution, Industrial Wastes, Air Pollution.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Physical Chemistry", PW Atkins ELB5,

2. "Physical Chemistry", Glasston

3. "Chemistry in Engineering and Technology", Kuriacose and Rajaram, Tata McGraw Hill, 1991

4. "Physical Chemistry", WJ Moore

5. "Instrumental Methods of Analysis", HH Willard, LL Meritt, JA Dean, FA settle

**Part II (Civil)**

**SURVEYING - (TC 2.1)**

**Introduction:** Content of surveying, Purpose of Surveying, Measurements-linear and angular, units of measurements, classification of survey based on Instruments, Instruments used for taking these measurement, Basic Principles of Surveying

**Chain Surveying:** Purpose of surveying, Principle of chain surveying, Equipment used in chain surveying, chain types, ranging roads, arrows, pegs, cross staffs, Indian optical square, their construction and use.

Different operations in chain surveying- Ranging (Direct/Indirect), Offsets (Perpendicular/oblique), Chaining (Flat and slopping ground), Conducting chain survey over an area, recording the field data, plotting the chain survey, conventional signs, Obstacles in chain surveying-Errors in chain surveying, Correction for erroneous length of chain, simple problem on this, Testing and adjustment of chain and Indian optical square.

**Compass Surveying:** Purpose of compass surveying, construction and working of prismatic compass, use of prismatic compass, setting and taking observations.

**Concept of **

• Meridian, Magnetic and true

• Bearing, Magnetic, True and Arbitrary

• Whole circle bearing and reduced bearing

• Magnetic dip and declination.

Local Attraction-causes, detection, errors and correction, problems on local attraction, magnetic declination, calculation of included angles in a compass traverse.

Concept of traverse, open and closed. Traversing with a compass, Checks for an open and closed traverse, plotting a traverse-By included and deflection angles, concept of closing error, adjustment of traverses graphically by proportionate method.

**Levelling:** Purpose of leveling, concept of level surface, horizontal surface, vertical surface, datum, reduced level and benchmarks. Principle and construction of dumpy and LO.P (Tilting) levels. Concept of line of collimation, axis of the bubble tube, axis of the telescope and vertical axis. Levelling staff: single Piece, folding, sop With, invar precision staff. Temporary adjustment: setting up and leveling, adjusting for parallax of dumpy, and LO.P level, Differential Levelling. Concept of back sight, Foresight, Intermediate sight, station change point, height of Instrument.

Level book and reduction of levels by: Height of collimation method and Rise and fall method. Arithmetic checks, problem on reduction of levels, fly leveling, check leveling and profile leveling (L-section and X-section), errors in leveling and precaution to minimize them and permissible limits, reciprocal leveling, testing and adjustment of I.O.P level. Numerical problem

**Plane Table Surveying:** Purpose of plane table surveying, Equipment used in plane table survey, Plane tube, Alidade (Plain and telescopic), Accessories, Setting of a plane table: Centering, Levelling, Orientation, Methods of plane table surveying, Radiation, Intersection, Traversing, Resection, Two point problem, Three point problem by Mechanical method (Tracing paper), Bessel's graphical method, Trial and error method, Errors in plane table survey and precautions to control them. Testing and adjustment of plane table and alidade

**Contouring:** Concepts of contour, Purpose of contouring, contour interval and horizontal equivalent, factors affecting contour interval, characteristics of contours, method of contouring: Direct and indirect, use of stadia measurements in CGRteur survey, interpolation of contours; use of contour map, drawing cross-section from a contour map, marking alignment of a road, railway and a canal on a contour map, computation of earth work and reservoir capacity from a contour map.

**Theodolite Surveying:** Working of a transit vernier theodolite, fundamental axis of a theodolite and their relation: temporary adjustments of a transit theodolite; concept of vernier, least count and reading a vernier concept of transiting, swinging, Face left, Face right and changing face; measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, prolonging a line(forward and backward),measurement of bearing of a line traversing by included angles and deflection angle method ;traversing by stadia measurement, theodolite triangulation, plotting a traverse, concept of coordinate and solution of omitted measurements (one side affected),errors in theodolite survey and precautions taken to minimize them, limits of precision in theodolite traversing, brief introduction to tacheometry and use of tacheometric tables

**Minor Instruments:** Study and use of the instruments given below:

Abney level, Tangent clinometer, Proportionate compass, Ceylone Ghat Tracer, Pentagraph, Planimeter

**Recommended books: **

1. "Surveying and Levelling" B.C.Punrnia, Ashok Kumar Jain, Arun Kr. Jain, Luxmi Publications, New Delhi

2. "Surveying"C.L.Kochhar, S.K.Kataria & Sons, New Delhi

3. "Surveying & Levelling" T. P.Kanetkar

**FLUID MECHANICS AND MACHINERY - (TC 2.2)**

**Fluid Properties:** Dimensions and units - continuum-Density-Specific weight, Specific gravity, Viscosity - surface tension, Capillarity, Compressibility - Vapour pressure.

**Fluid Statics:** Pressure relation - Pascal's law - Measurements of pressure, Forces on plane and curved surfaces - total pressure and center of pressure.

**Equations of fluid flow:** Types of flow, stream line-stream tube - Control volume, Continuity equation @one dimensional and three dimensional flow, velocity potential and stream function - free and forced vortex flow - Energy equation - Euler's equation in one dimensional from - Bernoulli equation

**Flow Measurements:** Venturi meter - Orifice meter - Pitot tube - Weirs and Notches.

**Flow Through Pipes:** Loss of energy in pipes - Major energy loss - Minor energy losses, pipes in series and parallel- power transmission through pipes, Syphon - Water hammer (Definition)

**Pumps:** Impulse momentum equation-impacts of jets, plane and curved, stationary and moving plates

**Pumps Classification:** Positive displacement pumps, reciprocating pumps-operating principles, slip indicator diagram, separation - air vessels. Centrifugal pumps, operation, velocity triangles - performance curves - cavitation, multistaging - selection of pumps

**Turbines:** Impulse Momentum Equation-moment of momentum equation (theory only) - turbine classification - working principles, Pelton wheel, Francis, Kaplan turbines - velocity triangles - similarity laws - specific speed - governing of turbines - surge tanks -miscellaneous pumps - jet pump, gear oil pump - submersible pump - principle.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "A Text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines" Modi, P.N. & Seth, S.M., Standard Book House, New Delhi, 10th edition, 1991.

2. "A Text book of Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulic Machines" Rajput, R.K., S.Chand and Co. New Delhi, 1998.

**SOIL MECHANICS - (TC 2.3)**

**Mechanical Properties:** Objective and importance of Geotechnical engineering-physical properties of soil-phase relations-grain size distribution-Atterberg limits-sensitivity and thixotropy of clays classification of soils as per B.LS

**Permeability and Seepage:** One dimensional flow through soil-permeability-Darcy's law-field and laboratory permeability tests-flow through stratified soil-seepage pressure and quick sand phenomenon, two dimensional flow, Laplace equation- electrical analogy-flow net applications for sheet pile cut off and earth dam-phreatic line-piping.

**Compaction and Consolidation:** Compaction-Proctor's test, moisture density relations-factors affecting compaction-field compaction methods-field compaction control-primary consolidation concept void ratio, pressure curve, field curve-laboratory test-Definition of terms-consolidation, settlement consolidation pressure-Terzaghi's theory of one dimensional consolidation-partial differential equation(no analytical solution) - Boundary condition-time factor-time rate of consolidation Determination of CV.

**Stress Distribution and Settlement:** Concept of effective and neutral stresses-soil water statics capillary phenomenon-vertical stress distribution in soil-Boussinesq equation-line load-uniformly distributed load-influence chart-approximate methods-Westergaard's equation-pressure bulb-causes of settlement-components of settlement-Immediate and consolidation settlement-methods of minimizing settlement-Codal provisions.

**Shear Strength & Stability of Slopes:** Shear strength of soil, importance- Mohr-Colomb's strength theory, Laboratory & field test, factor affecting shear strength, types of shear tests- test based on drainage condition, behaviour of saturated cohesive soil. Stability of slopes, infinite & finite slopes types of failure, slip circle method, friction circle method, Taylor's stability chart.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Soil Mechanics and Foundations", Punima B.C., Sauara & Co., Madras 1988

2. "Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering", Arora, K.R., Standard Publishers Distribution, New Delhi,1987.

3. "Geotechnical Engineering", Venkatramiah, Willey Eastern Ltd., 1993

**MECHANICS OF SOLIDS - (TC 2.4)**

**Introduction:** Fundamental & derived units, system of units, Mathematical useful data, various laws of forces and their application.

**Simple Stresses &. Strains:** Stress-strain & their types, Hooks law & Young's modulus, Deformation of body due to self weight or force acting on it. Stresses in bars of varying section stresses in nuts & bolts.

**Thermal Stresses &. Strains:** Introduction, Thermal stresses in simple bars, Tapering section, varying section & composite bars.

**Bending &. Shearing Stresses in Beams:** Theory of simple bending with assumptions. Bending stresses and their distribution across the section. Bending stresses in symmetrical and unsymmetrical sections. Shear stresses in a loaded beam. Distribution of shear stresses over various sections, viz rectangular, circular & I sections.

**Deflection of Beams:** Introduction, relation between slope, deflection and radius of curvature. Method for slope and deflection for simple supported beam with center point load, eccentric point load and uniformly distribution load. Moment area method for slope and deflection. Mohr's theorems and Macaulays method.

**Torsion of Circular Shafts:** Torsion stresses and strains. Strength of solid and hollow shafts. Strain energy due to torsion, Design of shaft couplings, bolts and keys.

**Riveted &. Welded Joints: **Types of riveted joints and their applications. Design of riveted joint. Strength and efficiency of riveted joints. Types of rod joints, Knuckle and Cotter joints.

**Types of Welded Joints:** Advantages and disadvantages of welded joints, strength of welded joints. Springs: Stiffness of a spring. Types of springs and their applications. Helical springs. Closely coiled helical springs subject to axial and twist load. Open coiled helical springs and springs in series and parallel.

**Columns &. Struts:** Introduction, failure of columns and struts. Euler's column theory with assumptions and limitations. Types of end conditions of columns. Slenderness ratio, Rankine's formulae for column. Indian standard code for columns.

**Recommended Books **

1. "Strength of Materials" R.S. Khurmi, S.Chand & Co New Delhi.

2. "Strength of Materials" Brinder Singh, S. K. Kataria & Sons New Delhi.

3. "Strength of Material" ,M.Chakravati, S.K.Kataria & Sons New Delhi.

**BASIC STRUCTURAL DESIGN - (TC 2.5)**

**Structure and Design Concept: **

**Classification of Structures:** Function, material, and shape-different structural system-requirement of structures-basic structural requirements-stability, strength & stiffness-design process-codes of practice. Working stress metl1od-limit state method of design-probabilistic approach to design-load and resistance-design for strength, stiffness and stability consideration-choice between different structural materials-concrete, timber, masonary and steel.

**Structural Loads:** Dead load-live load-wind load-calculation of wind load for a structure-Seismic loaddbuoyancy and thermal loads, Design 'of masonary walls and columns axially loaded, square and rectangular columns with uniaxial eccentricity loaded walls with openings-non load bearing walls.

**Laterally Loaded Masonary Structures:** Structures and loads-stability of masonary-middle third rule masonary dams-trapezoidal dams-retaining walls.

**Load Distribution Elements:** Bed blocks-spread footing for walls and columns-area based on safe bearing capacity

**Design of Reinforced Masonary:** Introduction-basic concepts-limit state design of reinforced brick masonary-Iintels-axially loaded columns.

**Timber-Flexural And Compression Members:** Factors effecting the strength-permissible stresses Design for bending, shear and bearing, Flitched beams-solid and built up columns-combined bending and direct stress, application to form work.

**Bolted and Welded Joints:** Bearing and friction type of bolts-splicing joints-joints subjected to moment and direct load and torsion-butt and fillet welds-joints subjected to shear, bending and torsion.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Structural Design in Steel, Masonary and Timber", Nemchand and 8ros., Roorkee, 1987.

2. "Bricks and Reinforced Brick Structures", Dayarathnam P., Oxford & IBH Publishing Co, (pvt) Ltd, New Delhi.

**ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING - (TC 2.6)**

**Water Quality and Perspectives:** Water quality parameters and analysis-physical, chemical and biological-MTFT & MFT methods-water quality standards and planning factors in India-objectives of public water supply scheme-Health, Acceptability, Adequacy, convenience and Economy aspects population forecasts - percapita demand and variation in demand pattern-Rural water supply scheme Necessity and state of art- methods.

**Water Supply Sources:** Surface, subsurface, and ground waters hydrology and impounded storage requirements-mass-inflow curve and analytical methods-hydraulics of ground water flow,· estimating yields of wells by steady state methods (Without derivation)-intake structures for different sources-River, canal, lake, reservoir, wells and infiltration galleries-construction, development and sanitary protection of wells-salt water intrusion and control strategies-rain water harvesting.

**Water Transmission Systems:** Gravity and pressure systems-Hydraulics and design of pressure pipes analytical methods and monograms-series and parallel pipes-different materials of pipes-selections and class of pipes-laying, jointing and testing of commonly used pipes, appurtenances of pipes-pumps and their selections-pumping stations-automatic controls.

**Water Treatment Processes:** Characteristics of surface and ground waters-convention and unconventional treatment schemes-principles, functions and design of flash mixer, f1occulator sedimentation tank, slow and rapid sand filters, and disinfections processes-principles of loan balancing bar graph, water softening, aeration, iron and magnese removal and fluoride removal.

**Distribution and Storage Systems:** Types, functions and requirement of distribution system pressure requirements and surveys-analyses of distribution systems-method of section, equivalent pipe method, and hardy cross method of balancing network-operation and maintenance of· distribution systems-Leak detection, Corrosion control and Leangelier index, and lining of pipes-storage reservoirs types, functions, locations, and capacity-house connection and appurtenances.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Water Supply and Waste Water Engineering". Raju B. S. N, Tata Mcgraw Hill Book Co, New Delhi, 1995

2 Water and Waste Water Technology 2nd Edn. (SI Version)", Hammer M. J, John Villey and Sons, N. V, 1986.

3. "Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering 8th Edn", Birdie, G. S., and Birdie, J. S, Dhanpat Rai and Sons Ltd,1997.

**CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY - (TC 2.7)**

**Site Planning:** Precautions in selection of sites, the situation and surroundings of site for various types of building, elel11ents of building planning, requirements, orientation, ventilation and lighting.

**Foundation:** setting out foundation plan on ground, concept of foundation, bearing capacity of a good foundation, types of foundation and their construction, suitability, Foundation in black cotton soil, Methods of timbering of trenches, Foundation failures and remedial measures.

**Brick and Stone Masonry:** Types of bond in brickwork and their suitability, general principles and precautions in brick masonry, factors affecting thickness of walls, construction of brick masonry, methods of bonding new brick work with old brick work. Comparison of brick and stone masonry, strength of Brick Masonry, Classification as per IS code, Classification of Stone masonry, general principles and precautions in stone masonry, specification and construction of stone masonry, composite masonry, lifting appliances, Concrete hollow block masonry.

**Roofs and Floors:** Roof covering materials, Specification for laying Mangalore Tiles, Asphalt roofing sheets, Asbestos cement sheets, Aluminum sheets and GI sheets. Accessories for drainage works, shapes of gutters and their sizes, Different types of supporting trusses for the roofing sheets, Timber and concrete roofs, different types of floors, suitability and construction of floors and floor finishes Anti termite treatment.

**Doors, Windows and Staircases:** Different types of doors and windows and their suitability, Timber, steel, aluminum and synthetic. Stair and staircases: Concept, requirement of a good stair, principles to be observed for planning anQ layout of stairs, classification of stairs according to their layout and materials of construction.

**Water Proofing and Damp Proofing:** Techniques of plastering, types of rendering, types of pointing and their suitability, Application of paints for new and old work of timber, steel and plaster, preparation and application of white washing and distempering, weathering course. Damp proofing, causes of dampness, III effects, Methods of preventing dampness, Types and classification of damp proofing materials, requirements of an ideal material for damp proofing, methods of providing DPC under different situations.

**R.C.C. Work:** Methods of construction of R.C.C.slabs, beams & columns, Miscellaneous Construction, Features: Construction sequences: Construction sequences and procedure for RC framed structures with masonry panel walls, load bearing wall structures, industrial shed type building. Expansion joints: Types and provision of expansion joints for foundations, floors, walls, roofs, beams and slabs. Shoring, Scaffolding and underpinning: Methods, uses and suitability of different types and precautions for safety, Selection of equipment for earth work, concreting, material handling and erection of structures.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Building Construction", Rangwala S.c., Charotar Book Stall, Anand, 1993

2. "A Text Book of Building Construction':, Arora N .L.Satya Prakashan, New Delhi.

3. "Building Construction", Sushil Kumar, Standard Publishers, New Delhi, 1997

4. "A Text Book of Building Construction", Punima B.C., A Saurabh & Co (P) Ltd.,New Delhi, 1993

**ESTIMATION, COSTING AND SPECIFICATIONS - (TC 2.8)**

**Procedure of Estimating Quantities:** Introduction, Main items of work, calculation of quantities of earth work, stone masonry, brick masonry, plastering, cement concrete, R.C.C., doors, windows, flooring, white washing, colour washing, distempering and their units.

**Rate Analysis:** Factors affecting rates, importance, materials for different items of work, rates of materials and labour, analysis of rates for cement concrete, R.C.C., brick masonry, stone masonry, Hollow block masonry, Plastering, Painting, flooring, road works, sanitary works, Water supply works and electrical works.

**Cost Estimate of Buildings:** ApprOXimate methods, Plinth area estimate, Cubical Contents estimate. Detailed estimate, Estimation of the cost of single storeyed buildings by individual wall method and center line method. Estimation of Roofs, R.C.C. slab roof, GI sheet roof, Tiled Roof, Roof Truss. Estimation of R.C.C. works, Beam, T- Beam and Slab, column, Foundation, Staircase, Retaining wall etc.

**Cost Estimate of Other Structures:** Estimation of roads, Earth work, Pitching of Slopes, Hill roads. Estimation of R.C.C. slab culvert, Pier, Pipe culvert, R.C.C. T-beam bridge

Estimation of irrigation works like Canals, Aqueducts, Syphon, etc.

Estimation of Water supply and sanitary works like septic tank, soak pit, manhole, sewer line, etc.

**Specifications and Valuation:** Specifications, Objectives, types of specifications, principles of specification writing, typical specifications

Valuation, market value, Book value, Scarp value, salvage value, annuity, Capitalized values - sinking fund, depreciation, valuation of a building, Rent fixation, Mortgage Lease.

**Recommended Books; **

1. "Estimating and Costing", Dutta S.Dutta & Co., Lucknow.

2. "Estimating and Costing ",Rangawala.S.C., Chartoar Anand.

3. "A Text book on Estimating, Costing and Accounts", Kohli, D.O. and Kohli R.C., S:Chand and Co., New Delhi, 1994

**CIVIL ENGINEERING DESIGNS - (TC 2.9)**

**Reinforced Concrete Design:** Introduction, RCC concept, various types of reinforcing materials, their properties and suitability.

**RCC Beams:** Assumption in theory of simple bending of RCC beam, flextural & shear strength of singly reinforced RCC beam, Assumption made & permissible stress as per IS code of practice, concept bond. Permissible and actual bond stresses. Load and loading standards for beams as per IS. Design, various Design of beams Viz main/secondary Cantilever Doubly reinforced and ST beams.

**RCC Slab and Columns:** Structural behaviour of slab, Design of one/two way slab with tables of IS .456, concepts of short and long columns. Behavior and design of RCC column under axial load with hinged ends.

**Reinforced Brick work:** Their uses in slabs & lintels, general principles and design of RB and lintels & slabs, specification of RB work.

**Elements of Steel Structural Design:** Structural Steel Sections & Connections: Properties & designations of structural riveted connections, Types, Design of riveted joints for axially loaded members. Specifications, testing and inspections as IS. Welded connections, types, Design of dult & fillet welded connections subject to axial loads. Testing & inspection as per IS.

**Tension & Compression Members:** Design of tension members, permissible stresses in steel as per IS. Concept of bulking columns, effective length & Slenderness ratio, Permissible stresses on compression, strength of columns of single & build up sections. Design of compression members, Design of angles, struts and axially loaded column.

**Beams:** IS specifications for the design of simply supported beams..

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Elementary /RCC Design" VM Mahajan, Satya Parkashan New Delhi.

2. "Design & Testing of Concrete Structure" S.Ramamruthan ,Dhanpat Rai & Sons, New Delhi.

3. "Reinforced Concrete Design" ML Gambhir , Macmillan India Ltd.

**Part I (Architech)**

**BASIC ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING - (TA 1.1)**

**Introduction and Importance of Architecture **

Architecture and its bases for development. Principle and qualities of architecture. Factor in architecture and its development.

**Free hand Drawing and Painting **

Pencil as a n effective presentation tool:

• Free hand line work, different strokes in pencil

• Effect of light & shade on simple geometrical solids.

• Texture of different bUilding materials in pencil through shading.

• Freehand sketching of human figures, trees & vehicles on an appropriate scale.

**Poster Colour & its Use **

• Colour wheel showing primary, secondary and tertiary colours.

• Chart showing tints & tones of various colours.

• Effect of colour in relief compositions.

**Architectural Requirements of Building **

Basic architectural requirements of building with reference to purpose & function, environment, climate, materials and methods of construction.

**Recommended books**

1. "World Architecture", G. K. Hiraskar, Dhanpat Rai Publications (P) Ltd. New Delhi.

2. "Building Materials", Parbin Singh

3. "Building Construction", S.K.Sharma & B.K.Kaul

**TECHNICAL WRITING - (TC 1.2)**

**Study of Grammar: **

- Various Parts of speech

- Tenses

- Transformation of sentences Degree of comparison Active & Passive voice, Affirmatives,

- Negative

- Exclamatory.

- Conversion of simple sentences into compound and complex.

- Interchange of one part of speech for another.

- Direct and Indirect speech.

- Prepositions and prepositional phrases.

- Punctuation.

- Right use of articles.

- Pair of words and common errors.

**Business Correspondence: **

- General principle of business correspondence

- Writing different types of letters

- Enquiries

- Answers to enquiries

- Circular letters

- Complaints.

**Comprehension: **

- Comprehension of simple passages on scientific and technical subjects.

- Reports on accident in factories

- Work progress

- Repairs and damages,

- Rise and fall in production and selection of site, etc.

**Essays: **

An essay on a subject of current topics Science & Humanity

Atomic energy

Games & their role in Society.

**Recommended books: **

1. "Communication Skills" P. Prasad, S.K.Kataria &Sons ,New Delhi

2. "Business Correspondence & Report Writing", Sharma & Mohan, Tata McGraw Hill Co., New Delhi.

**ENGINEERING PHYSICS AND APPLIED MECHANICS (TC 1.3)**

**Units & Dimensions:** Fundamentals and derived units in SI system, Dimensions of physical quantities, Dimensional equation, checking the correctness of physical equations, Derivations of physical relation, Limitations of dimensional analysis.

**Equivalent Force Systems:** Replacement of force by equivalent couple and a force at other point, Resultant of a force system, Simplest resultants of coplanar force systems, Wrench resultant, Resultant of parallel force systems, Distributed force systems.

**Equilibrium Of Rigid Bodies:** Introduction, Different types of supports, Free body diagrams, Conditions of equilibrium, Different cases of equilibrium.

**Centroid And Center Of Gravity:** Location of centroid and center of gravity, Centroid of simple sections, Centroid of a composite line, Centroid of composite section, C.G. of composite-bodies.

**Friction:** Laws of dry friction or Coulomb Friction, Angle of friction, A block on a horizontal plane, Two mating blocks, one on horizontal plane and other connected to a wall, Cylinder resting on a floor and against a vertical wall~ Angle of repose, A body on an inclined plane, Cylinder on an inclined plane.

**Moment of Inertia (Second Moment of Area):** Introduction, Rectangular section, Triangular section, Circular section, Polar moment of inertia, Parallel axes theorem

**Simple Stresses And Strains:** Normal and shear stresses, Longitudinal strain, Lateral strain and Poisson's Ratio" Bars of varying cross-sections, bar subjected to various forces, Extension under self weight of bar, Shear stress and shear strain, Complementary shear stress, Volumetric stress and volumetric strain, Statically inderminate problems, Tensile test on mild steel, Strain energy and resilience, Sudden load, Impact loads, Stress concentration in members under tensile force, factor of safety.

**Plane Trusses:** Determination of support reactions, Determination of forces in members of the truss, Method of joints, Method of sections, and Graphical method.

**Shear Force And Bending Moment Diagrams:** Various types of beams, Shear force diagram of simply supported beam subjected to concentrated loads, S.F. Diagram of a simply supported beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, S.F. Diagram of a cantilever subjected to a concentrated load, S.F. Diagram of a cantilever subjected to a uniformly distributed load, Bending Moment Diagram of a simply supported beam carrying a concentrated load, Bending Moment Diagram of a SS Beam subjected to uniformly distributed load, Bending Moment diagram of a cantilever subjected to a concentrated load, Bending Moment Diagram of a cantilever carrying a uniformly distributed load, S.F. and B.M. Diagrams of a beam with variable loading, S.F. and B.M. Diagrams of a beam subjected to a moment.

**Rotational & Simple Harmonic Motions:** Moment of inertia & its significance, Torque, Angular moment & their interrelation. Expression for K.E. of rotation, Simple harmonic motion Derivation of displacement, velocity, acceleration, time period & frequency, Expression for time period.

**Heat Transfer:** Three modes of heat transfer, Co-efficient of thermal conductivity, its determination by Searles & Disc method, Conduction through compound media (series & parallel for two materials), Heat radiation, Characteristics of heat radiation, Prevosts theory of heat exchange, Black Body Radiations, Emissivity & Absorptivity, Kirchoff's law & Stefan's law of radiation.

**Sound:** Waves, superposition & interference of waves, Acoustics of buildings & ultra sonics

**Electricity & Electromagnetism:** Ohm's law, current & resistance, D.C. circuits & Kirchoff's laws, Magnetism & electromagnetism.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Applied Physics" Eagle Publishers

**ENGINEERING MATHMATICS - (TC 1.4)**

**Algebra:** Logarithm, theory of indices and their usage, Solution of quadratic and simultaneous equations. Partial fractions: The denominator having linear and quadratic factors (repeated and nonrepeated).

**Binomial Theorem:** Statement without proof of the binomial theorem for positive integer index, binomial expansion and the general term. Statement of general Binomial theorem (expansion only) first and second order binomial approximation.

**Vector Algebra:** Definition, notation and rectangular resolution of a vector. Addition and subtraction of vectors. Scalar and vector products of two vectors.

**Trigonometry:** Trigonometric ratios: Definitions, Inverse Trigonometry function:

T-ratios of angles between 0° and 360°, Solution of simple trigonometric equation between 0° and 360° only. Sum/difference formulae (without proof) and their applications. T-ratios of multiples and submultiples of angles (2A, 3A, A/2 only), Sine and Cosine formulae

Co-ordinate Geometry: Point: Cartesian and polar co-ordinates and their conversion, distance between two points, internal and external division formulae (without proof), co-ordinate of centroid and in center (without proof), problems on locus. Distance & section formulae

**Straight-line:** Equations of a straight line in various standard forms, inter-section of straight lines, Angle between two straight lines. Perpendicular distance formula.

**Circle:** The equation of a circle in standard and general forms. Finding equation of a circle when:

(a) Its center and radius are given.

(b) Any three points on it are given

**Complex Number:** Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication, & Division of Complex Number.

**Differential Calculus:** Rate measure, Calculation of errors, Newton's method of solving equations, Tangent and normal to a curve for explicit functions only, Maxima & Minima.

**Integral Calculus:** Simple problems on area bounded by a curve and axis and volume of a solid formed by revolution of an area about axes, Average and rms values

**Ordinary Differential Equations:** Definitions, First order and first-degree equations, Variable separable, Homogeneous and Exact equations and their solutions, Higher order linear differential equations with constant coefficients.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Applied Mathematics''''K.K Malhotra, S.K Kataria & Sons, New Delhi.

**ENGINEERING DRAWING - (TC 1.5)**

**Handling Use and Care of Drawing Instruments and Materials:** Drawing instruments, Materials, Layout of drawing sheets

**Lettering Technique and Practice:** Instrumental single stroke lettering of 35mm and 70mm height in the ratio of 7:4 Free hand lettering (Alphabet and numerals) lower case and upper case, single stroke and block letters, vertical and inclined at 75 degree in different standards, series of 3, 5, 8 and 12mm heights in the ratio of 7:4

**Projection and Isometric Views:** Theory of projections (elaborate theoretical instructions), drawing 3 views of given objects (Non symmetrical objects may be selected for this exercise), Drawing 6 views of given objects (Non- symmetrical objects may be selected for this exercise), Identification of surfaces on drawn views and objects drawn, Exercises on missing surfaces and views, Orthographic drawing or interpretation of views, Introduction to third angle projections, Fundamentals of isometric projections (Theoretical instructions), Isometric views from 2 or 3 given orthographic views, Preparation of simple drawing of Furniture items like table, stool etc.

**Symbols and Conventions (1S1):** Civil Engineering sanitary fitting symbols, Electrical fitting symbols for domestic interior installations, Simple Building plan drawing with electrical and civil engineering symbols.

**Building Drawing:** Drawing plan, elevation & section of residential building (single & double stories). Free Hand Drawing showing placement, construction of different joints and anti-termite treatments.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "A Text Book of Engineering Drawing", J.S. Loyal, Eagle Publishers.

2. "Engineering Drawing" P.s.GiII, S.K.Kataria & Sons, New Delhi

**ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY - (TC 1.6)**

**Solid State Chemistry:** Introduction, Elements of Symmetry, Space Lattice and the Unit Cell, Miller Indices, Rules for Obtaining the Miller Indices of a Plane, Point Groups and Space Groups, X-Ray and Crystal Structure, Structure of Solids-Close Packing of Spheres, Types of Solids (Insulators, Semiconductors and Metals), Defects in the Solid State, Applications of Semiconductors.

**Thermodynamics:** Introduction, The Language of Thermodynamics, Heat and Work, Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, First Law of Thermodynamics, Thermodynamics, Enthalpy Change as a Function of Temperature, Adiabatic Processes, Carnot's Cycle and Heat Engines, Entropy, The Second Law of Thermodynamics, Free Energy Changes, Third Law of Thermodynamics, The Chemical Potential, Free Energy Changes and Chemical Equilibria.

**Phase Equilibria:** Introduction, Definition, Derivation of the Phase Rule, One-Component Systems, Two-Component Systems, The Nernst Distribution Law, Solid-Liquid Systems-Condensed Systems, Alloys,

**Electrode Potentials and Batteries:** Introduction, Electrode Potentials and Electromotive Force, Concentration Cells, Applications of EMF, Measurements, Polarization and Electrolysis, Commercial Cells.

**Corrosion and its Prevention:** Introduction, Corrosion of Metal in Gaseous Environments (Dry Corrosion), Wet Corrosion, Atmospheric Corrosion and Soil Corrosion, Protective Measure against Corrosion, Other forms, of Corrosion.

**Protective Coatings:** Introduction, Pretreatment of the Surface, Metallic Coatings, Nonmetallic Coatings, Organic Protective Coatings, Film-Forming Materials or Binders, Types of Paints and their uses, Defects in Paint Films.

**Fuels:** Introduction, Classification of Fuels, Primary, Solid Fuels, Primary Fuels (Liquids and Gases), Secondary Fuels and other Products Derived from Coal, Secondary Fuels Derived from Petroleum, Petrochemicals, Industrial Practice, Analysis and Testing of liquid and Gaseous Fuels, Utilization of Fuels, Combustion Calculations, Nuclear Fuels, Solar Power, Other Sources of Energy.

**High Polymers:** Introduction, Polymerization and Functionality, Nomenclature of Polymers, Chain Polymerization by Ionic Mechanisms, Coordination Polymerization, Polymerization Processes, Some Important Plastics, Polymer Degradation and Additives for Polymers, Structure and Properties, Molecular Weights of Polymers.

**Environmental Pollution and its Control:** Introduction, Water Pollution, Industrial Wastes, Air Pollution.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Physical Chemistry", PW Atkins ELB5,

2. "Physical Chemistry", Glasston

3. "Chemistry in Engineering and Technology", Kuriacose and Rajaram, Tata McGraw Hill, 1991

4. "Physical Chemistry", WJ Moore

5. "Instrumental Methods of Analysis", HH Willard, LL Meritt, JA Dean, FA settle

**Part II (Architech)**

**HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE – (TA 2.1)**

Architecture and its bases for development. Principle and qualities of Architecture. Factor in Architecture and its development.

An overall view of Egyptian, West Asisatic, Indian, Chinese, Greek, Roman, Muslim and early Christian Architecture.

European renaissance and Modern Architecture ,wonders of world.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "World Architecture" G.K.Hiraskar, Dhanpat Rai Publications (P) Ltd. New Delhi.

**FREE HAND DRAWING AND PAINTING - (TA 2.2)**

**Pencil as an Effective Presentation Tool **

1. Free hand line work, different stroke in pencil

2. Effect of light and shade on simple geometrical solids

3. Textures of different building materials in pencil through shading

4. Freehand sketching of human figures, trees and vehicles on an appropriate scale.

**Poster Colour and its Use **

1. Colour wheel showing primary, secondary and tertiary colours.

2. Chart showing tints & tones of various colours

3. Effect of colour in relief compositions

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Architectural Rendering" Philip Crowe

2. "Architectural Rendering" Albert and Habe

3. "Architectural Rendering" Jaztheimer

**BUILDING CONSTRUCTION - (TA 2.3)**

**Foundations:** Definition, load distribution through soil, bearing capacity of different soils, Improvement of bearing capacity, types of foundations and their suitability, spread, isolated, combined, continuous, raft, cantilever, Grillage. Inverted arch and pile foundations. Design of shallow foundations, Causes of failure and remedial measures. Recommendation for Black Cotton soil as per I.S.I.

**Masonry: **

- **Brick masonry:** Bond-definition, need and scope, Types of bonds- English and Flemish. Their merits and demerits. .

- **Stone masonry:** Rubble and ashlar joints in stone masonry.

- **Hollow block masonry:** Cement concrete hollow blocks and hollow clay blocks. Composite masonry: Definition use and merits.

- **Walls- **Load bearing and non-load bearing walls, covering walls, thickness considerations.

**Damp Proofing:** Sources, Causes and bad effects, Preventive measures, Horizontal and vertical D.P.C. in solid and cavity walls, D.P.C. in basement.

**Arches & lintels:** Definitions of various terms used, arches types - flat segmental, semi-circular, brick and stone arches. Functions of lintels.

**Pointing & Plastering:** Objects, method, types, defects and external finishes, special materials for plastered surfaces.

**Floors:** Various types of floors commonly used and their suitability for different buildings, constructional details of concrete and terrazzo floors.

**Doors & Windows:** Location and sizes used. Essential requirement, Method of fixing doors and window frames in walls.

**Stairs:** Definition of various terms used. Essential requirement, types of stairs, straight, flight, quarter turn, half turn and spiral stair cases. Brief discussion of ramps, escalators and lifts.

**Roofs:** Flat roof and details of 1st class roofs, Jack arch R.B. and R.C.C.roofs.

**Sloping / Pitched Roofs:** Wooden trusses- king post and queen post roofs. Steel roofs, trusses, fink, fan and north logot truss roofs. Details of rain proofing at top and ends .

**Miscellaneous Topics: **

Brief description of the following:

- Site selection and orientation of building

- Principles of acoustical design of building

- Fire proof construction methods.

- Earth quake resistance buildings.

- Timbering of trenches, centring, scaffolding, underspining, shorting and form work.

- Ventilation and Air conditioning

- Thermal Insulation Building.

- Constructional Joints in Building.

- Building bye-laws and modular construction.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Building Materials" Rangwala

2. "Building Materials" Parbin Singh ~

3. "Building Construction" S.K.Sharma & B.K.Kaul

4. "Building Construction" S.P.Bindra.

**STRUCTURAL MECHANICS - (TA 2.4)**

**Properties of Materials:** Classification of materials, elastic materials, ductile materials, brittle materials. Tensile test, compressive test, impact test, fatigue test, torsion test.

**Simple Stresses and Strains:** Concept of stress, normal and shear stresses, stresses due to torsion. Concept of strain, strain and deformation, longitudinal and lateral strain, Poison's ratio, volumetric strain, Hooke's law, modulli of elasticity and rigidity, Bulk modulus of elasticity, relationship between the elastic constants. Stresses and strains in bars subjected to tension and compression. Extension of uniform bar under it's own weight, stresses produced in compound bars (two or three) due to axial load. Stress-strain diagram for mild steel, mechanical properties, factor of safety. Temperature stresses and strains.

**Bending Moment and Shear Force:** Concept of a beam and supports (Hinges, roller and fixed), types of beams, simply supported, cantilever, fixed and continuous beams. Types of loads (point, uniformly distributed and varying loads). Concept of bending moment and shear force, sign conventions. Bending moment and shear force diagrams for cantilever, simply supported and over-hanging beams subjected to concentrated, uniformly distributed and uniformly varying loads (B.M. and S.F. diagrams should preferably be drawn on graph paper). Relationship between load, shear force and bending moment, point of maximum bending moment and contra flexure.

**Second Moment of Area:** Concept of second moment of area, radius of gyration. Theorems of parallel and perpendicular axes. Second moment of area for sections of : rectangle, triangle, circle, trapezium, angle, Tee, I, Channel and Compound sections. (No Derivation).

**Bending and Shear Stresses:** Theory of simple bending: Moment of resistance, sectional modulus and permissible bending stresses in circular, rectangular, I, T and L sections; Comparison of strengths of the above sections.

Concept of Shear stresses in beams, Shear-stress distribution in rectangular, I and T section (Formula to be stated, no derivation)

**Slope and Deflection:** Necessity for determination of deflection, Moment area theorems (no derivation) Computation of slopes and deflections using moment area theorems for: Simply supported beam with UDL over span and concentrated load at any point, Cantilever with UDL over entire span and concentrated load at free end.

**Columns:** Theory of columns, Euler's, Rankine's and I.S.formulae.

**Combined Direct And Bending Stresses:** Concentric and eccentric loads, eccentricity, effect of eccentric load on the section, stresses due to eccentric loads, and examples in the case of short columns. Effect of wind pressure on walls and chimneys; water pressure on dams and earth pressure on retaining walls, their causes of failures and their stability.

**Analysis of Trusses:** Concept of a frame, perfect, redundant and deficient frame, end supports, ideal and practical trusses. Analysis of trusses by:

a) Method of joints

b) Method of sections and

c) Graphical method.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Analysis of Structure Vol.1", Vazirani, VN and Ratwani, M. M., Khanna Publishers, Delhi.

2. "Strength of Materials", Punima, BC, Standard Publishers Distributors. Delhi,

3. "Applied Mechanics and Strength of Materials", Ram Chandra, Standard Publishers, Delhi.

**THEORY OF STRUCTURES - (TA 2.5)**

Center of gravity, definition, centroid, center of gravity of plane figures/ CG by method of moments, numerical problems. Moment of Inertia; MI of plane area, MI by method of integration, MI of rectangular section, theorem of parallel and perpendicular areas, numerical problems

Bending moment/Shear force, type of supports, loads and beams, relation between SF and BM, BM and SF diagram for cantilever and simply supported beams with pointed load, uniformly distributed load, design examples

Moment of resistance, theory of bending, bending stresses, equation of theory of bending, sectional modulus of rectangular and circular sections, numerical problems

Analysis of perfect frame, classification of frames, stress, strain, assumption, method of section, method of joints, design example.

Link polygon, method of construction, resultant of concurrent forces, coplanar forces system.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Strength of Materials", R.S. Khurmi S.Chand & Co New Delhi.

2. "Strength of Materials", Brinder Singh S.K. Kataria & sons New Delhi.

3. "Strength of Material", M.Chakravarti, S.K.Kataria & Sons New Delhi.

**ESTIMATION AND COSTING - (TA 2.6)**

**Building: Introduction to Estimating:** Types of estimates, drawing to be attached with these estimates, preparation of rough cost estimates. Units of measurement and units of payment of different items of work. Different methods of taking out quantities, center line in- to in/out-to-out methods. Preparation of a detailed estimate complete with detailed reports, specifications, abstract of cost and material statement for a small residential building with a flat roof. Preparation of a detailed estimate with specification, abstract of cost and material statement for pitched roof with steel truss only.

**Analysis of Rates:** Steps in the analysis of rates for any item of work, requirement of material, labour, sundries and contractors profit.

**Calculation of Quantities of Materials for:** Plain cement concrte of different proportions. Brick masonry in cement and lime mortar. Plastering and pointing with cement mortar in different proportions.

**White Washing:** Analysis of rates of the following items of work when the data regarding labour, rates of material and rates of labour is given.

Earth work in excvation and filling with a concept of lead and lift. Cement concrete in foundation

Damp proof course

RCC and RB in roof slabs.

First class burnt brick masonry in cement mortar Cement plaster

Cement pointing-flush, deep pointing Flooring (conglonerate only)

**Irrigation: **

- Calculation of earth work for lined channels with the help of drawings for different cross-sections.

- Preparation of detailed estimate for a brick lined distributory for a given section.

**Public Health:** Preparation of detailed estimate for laying a water supply line (CI pipe) Preparation of detailed estimate for sanitary and water supply fittings in a domestic bUilding containing one set of toilets and septic tank. Preparation of a detailed estimate for laying a brick sewer.

**Roads:** Methods for calculating earth work using: Average depth, graphical method, Calculations of quantities of materials for roads in plains for given drawings. Preparation of detailed estimate using the above quantities. Detailed estimate of a single span slab culvert with return wing walls. Calculations of quantities of different items of work for a masonry retaining wall from given drawings.

**Valuation:** Purpose of valuation, principles of valuation. Definitions of terms such as depreciation, sinking fund, salvage and scrap value. Valuation of a building property by replacement cost method and rental return method, method of calculation of standard rent, concept of capitalized value and years purchase.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Estimating Costing & Valuation (Civil)" Pasrija, HD; Arora, CL and S.Inderjit Singh, New Asian Publishers Delhi.

2. "Estimating and Costing" Rangwala, SC; Chartor Book Stall, Anand.

3. "A Text Book on Estimating and Costing (Civil) with Drawings" Kohli, D; and Kohli, RC, Ramesh Publications, Ambala.

4. "Estimating & Costing" Dutta, BN.

5. "Estimating Costing and Specification in Civil Engineering" Chakraborti, M, Calcutta.

**SURVEYING AND LEVELLING - (TA 2.7)**

**Introduction:** Content of surveying, Purpose of Surveying, Measurements-linear and angular, units of measurements, classification of survey based on Instruments, Instruments used for taking these measurement, Basic Principles of Surveying

**Chain Surveying:** Purpose of surveying, Principle of chain surveying, Equipment used in chain surveying, chain types, ranging roads, arrows, pegs, cross staffs, Indian optical square their construction and use.

Different operations on chain surveying-Ranging (Direct/Indirect), Offsets (Perpendicular/oblique), Chaining (Flat and slopping ground) Conducting chain survey over an area, recording the field data, plotting the chain survey, conventional signs

Obstacles in chain surveying-Errors in chain surveying, Correction for erroneous length of chain, simple problem on this Testing and adjustment of chain and Indian optical square

**Compass Surveying:** Purpose of compass surveying, construction and working of prismatic compass, use of prismatic compass, setting and taking observations.

Concept of

• Meridian, Magnetic and true

• Bearing, Magnetic, True and Arbitrary

• Whole circle bearing and reduced bearing

• Magnetic dip and declination.

Local Attraction-causes, detection, errors and correction, problems on local attraction, magnetic declination, calculation of included angles in a compass traverse.

Concept of traverse, open and closed. Traversing with a compass. Checks for an open and closed traverse, plotting a traverse-By included and deflection angles, concept of closing error, adjustment of trav erses graphically by proportionate method

**Levelling:** Purpose of leveling, concept of level surface, horizontal surface, vertical surface, datum. reduced level and benchmarks. Principle and construction of dumpy and LO.P (Tilting) levels. Concept of line of collimation, axis of the bubble tube, axis of the telescope and vertical axis. Levelling staff: single piece, folding, sop With, invar precision staff. Temporary adjustment: setting up and leveling, adjusting for parallax of dumpy, and LO.P level, Differential levelling. Concept of back sight, foresight, intermediate sight, station change point, height of instrument. level book and reduction of levels by: Height of collimation method and Rise and fall method. Arithmetic checks, problem on reduction of levels, fly leveling, check leveling and profile leveling(L-section and X-section),errors in leveling and precaution to minimize them and permissible limits, reciprocal leveling, testing and adjustment of LO.P level. Numerical problem.

**Plane Table Surveying:** Purpose of plane table surveying, Equipment used in plane table survey, Plane tube, Alidade (Plain and telescopic), Accessories, Setting of a plane table: Centering, Levelling, Orientation, Methods of plane table surveying, Radiation, Intersection, Traversing, Resection, Two point problem, Three point problem by Mechanical method (Tracing paper), Bessel's graphical method, Trial and error method, Errors in plane table survey and precautions to control them. Testing and adjustment of plane table and alidade .

**Contouring:** Concepts of contour, Purpose of contouring, contour interval and horizontal equivalent, factors affecting contour interval, characteristics of contours, method of contouring: Direct and indirect use of stadia, measurements in contour survey, interpolation of contours; use of contour map, draWing cross-section from a contour map, marking alignment of a road, railway and a canal on a contour map, computation of earth work and reservoir capacity from a contour map

**Theodolite Surveying:** Working of a transit vernier theodolite, fundamental axis of a theodolite and their relation: temporary adjustments of a transit theodolite ;concept of vernier, least count and reading a vernier ,concept of transitting, swinging, Face left, Face right and changing face; measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, prolonging a line(forward and backward),measurement of bearing of a line traversing by included angles and deflection angle method ;traversing by stadia measurement, theodolite triangulation, plotting a traverse, concept of coordinate and solution of omitted measurements (one side affected),errors in theodolite survey and precautions taken to minimize them, limits of precision in theodolite traversing, brief introduction to tacheometry and use of tacheometric tables

**Minor Instruments:** Study and use of the instruments given below to be explained in addition to providing practice:

Abney level, Tangent c1inometer Proportionate compass, Ceylone Ghat Tracer, Pentagraph, ·Planimeter

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Surveying & Levelling" B.C.Punmia, Ashok Kumar Jain,Arun Kr. Jain, Luxmi Publications, New Delhi

2. "Surveying" C.L.Kochha~ S.K.Kataria & Sons, New Delhi

3. "Surveying & Levelling", T.P.Kanetkar

**ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN AND GRAPHICS - (TA 2.8)**

Design of small buildings involving functional and services aspect, structure system & constructional methods e.g. Milk booths, kiosks, bus stop, cycle stand, security check post etc.

**Pencil Crayons and Oil Pastels as Presentation Medium: **

1. Rendering of various surfaces such as brick, stone, grass etc

2. Trees, human figures, automobiles, street lamp posts, furniture in plan, elevation and perspective.

3. Rendering of view/perspective in crayons and oil pastels.

**Water Colour Rendering: **

1. Outdoor free hand sketching and colour rendering of trees, shrubs, vegetation, buildings, vehicles etc.

2. Colour rendering of various scenes such as garden scene, street scene, lake scene, village scene, etc.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Architectural Rendering" Philip Crowe

2. "Architectural Rendering" Albert and Habe

3. "How to Paint and Draw" Jaxtheimer

**BUILDING MATERIAL AND SCIENCE - (TA 2.9)**

**Building Stones:** General uses of stones, Natural bed of stones, qualities of a good building stone Methods of stone quarrying with emphasis on blasting, Dressing of stones, Deterioration of stone, Preservation of stones and handling, Common building stones of India & their uses, Artificial stones.

**Bricks:** General, Desirable and harmful ingredients in brick earth and its composition, manufacture of bricks and tiles, qualities of good bricks, test of bricks, classification of bricks, colours of bricks, size & weight of bricks, shape of bricks, fire clays, fire bricks, glazed and fire proof bricks.

**Lime:** Characteristics of good quality lime, sources, and varieties, Manufacturing of lime, classifications of lime, uses of different varieties of lime, setting, slaking and testing of lime.

**Cement:** Chemical composition of ordinary Portland cement. Flow diagram of wet process of manufacturing of cement with brief description. LS.I specifications and testing of cement. Varieties of cement and their uses. Storage of cement.

**Mortar**

a) Definition - Sand, Natural sources of sand, classification of sand, Bulking of sand, properties of good sand- Function of sand, Tests for sand, its substitutes, Classification of mortars. Finenes modules of coarse & fine aggregates.

b) Definition - properties, proportioning, grading, water cement ratio, workability, mixing, transporting, placing, consolidation during water - proofing, batching, finishing, quality control of concrete, lightweight, no fines, coloured concrete and pre-cast concrete.

**Timber:** Definition, Classification of trees-soft woods & hard woods-structure of a tree-felling of trees defects in timber-qualities of good timber-seasoning of timber, decay of timber- preservation of timber, fire resistance of timber - conversion of timber, storage of timber, Market forms of timber.

**Paints, Varnishes & Distempers:** General, painting, varnishing, distempering, wall paper, white washing, colour washing.

**Miscellaneous Materials:** Brief description of glass, rubber, plastics, asbestos, sound & thermal insulation materials & their uses.

**Climatology and Thermal Control:** Global climatic factors, thermal comfort, heat gain and loss, u values for walls and roofs, solar geometry, shading devices, solar heating and cooling, passive systems.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Building Materials" Rangwala

2. "Building Materials" Parbin Singh

**Environmental Engineering** **- (TA 2.10)**

**Water Quality and Perspectives:** Water quality parameters and analysis-physical, chemical and biological MTFT & MFT methods, water quality standards and planning factors in India, objectives of public water supply scheme, Health, Acceptability, adequacy, convenience and Economy aspects, population forecasts, percapita demand and variation in demand pattern, Rural water supply scheme, Necessary and state of art-methods.

**Water supply sources:** Surface, subsurface, and ground waters, hydrology and impounded storage, requirements, mass inflow curve and analytical methods, hydraulics of ground water flow, estimating yields of wells by steady state methods (Without derivation) intake structures for different sources-Rive~ canal, lake, reservoir, wells and infiltration galleries, construction, development and sanitary protection of wells, salt water intrusion and control strategies, rain water harvesting.

**Water Transmission Systems:** Gravity and pressure systems, Hydraulics and design of pressure pipes,. analytical methods and monograms, series and parallel pipes, different materials of pipes, selection and class of pipes laying, Jointing find testing of commonly used pipes, appurtenances of pipes, pumps and their selections, pumping stations, automatic controls.

**Water Treatment Processes:** Characteristics of surface and ground waters, conventional and unconventional treatment schemes, principles, functions and design of flash mixer, flocculator sedimentation tank, slow and rapid sand filters, and disinfections processes, principles of loan balancing, bar graph, water softening, aeration, iron and magnese removal and fluoride removal.

**Distribution and storage systems:** Types, functions and requirement of distribution system, pressure requirements and surveys, analyses of distribution systems, method of section, equivalent pipe method, and hardy cross method of balancing network operation and maintenance of distribution systems, Leak detection, Corrosion control and Leangelier index and lining of pipes, storage reservoirs, ty.pes, function, locations and capacity, house connection and appurtenances.

**Recommended Books: **

1. "Water Supply and Waste Water Engineering" Raju B.S.N., Tata Mcgraw Hill Book Co., New Delhi,1995

2. "Water and Waste Water Technology 2nd Edn. (S1 Version)" Hammer MJ., John Villey and Sons, N.Y. 1986

3. "Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering 8th Edn.", Birdie, G.5. and Birdie J.S. Dhanpat Rai and Sons Ltd. 1997