PG in MicrobiologyMAHARASHTRA UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES
Price on request
PG in Microbiology
The aim of this course is to train the students of Medicine in
the field of Medical Diagnostic Microbiology. Knowledge and practical
skills shall be acquired by the candidates in the sub-specialities of
Bacteriology including Mycobacteriology, Virology, Parasitology,
Immunology, Serology & Mycology so as to be able to deal with diagnosis
and prevention of infectious diseases in the community. They will be
trained in basic research methodology including molecular biology so
that they are able to conduct fundamental and applied research. They
will also be trained in teaching methods so that they can take up
BROAD AREAS OF STUDY
General Microbiology; Systematic Bacteriology, Mycology, Virology, Parasitology;
Serology,Immunology, molecular diagnostics and Applied Clinical Microbiology
including recent advances in Microbiology.
1. History and pioneers in Microbiology
3. Morphology of bacteria and other micro-organisms.
4. Nomenclature and classification of microbes.
5. Growth and nutrition of bacteria.
6. Bacterial metabolism.
7. Sterilization and disinfection.
8. Biomedical waste disposal
9. Bacterial toxins.
10. Bacterial antagonism: Bacteriocins.
11. Bacterial genetics, gene cloning.
12. Antibacterial substances used in treatment of infections and drug resistance
13. Bacterial ecology-normal flora of human body, hospital environment, air,
water and milk
14. Host parasite relationship.
15. Quality control and Quality Assurance in Microbiology.
16. Laboratory Biosafety
17. Health care associated infections- prevention and control
IMMUNOLOGY AND APPLIED ASPECTS
1. The normal immune system.
2. Innate immunity.
6. Antigen and antibody reactions.
8. Cell medidated immunity.
11. Immune tolerance.
12. Transplantation immunity.
13. Tumour immunity.
14. Prophylaxis and immunotherapy
15. Measurement of immunity.
16. Immunity and immunopathogenesis of specific infectious diseases
17. Molecular Biology Techniques. For e.g. PCR, DNA probes.
1. Isolation, description and identification of bacteria. The epidemiology,
pathogenesis, antigenic characteristics and laboratory diagnosis of disease
caused by them
2. Staphylococcus and Micrococcus; Anaerobic Gram positive cocci.
3. Streptococcus and Lactobacillus.
4. Neisseria, Branhamnella and Moraxella.
5. Corynebacterium and other coryneform organisms.
6. Bacillus: the aerobic spore-bearing bacilli.
7. Clostridium: the spore-bearing anaerobic bacilli.
8. Non-sporing anaerobes
9. The Enterobacteriaceae.
10. Vibrios, Aeromonas, Plasiomonas, Campylobacter and Spirillum,H.pylori
11. Erysipelothrix and Listeria
13. Chromobacterium, Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter and Alkaligens.
14. Pasteurella, Francisella.
15. Haemophilus and Bordetella.
18. The spirochaetes.
19. Actinomyces, Nocardia and Actinobacillus.
20. Mycoplasmatales: Mycoplasma, Ureaplasma and Acholeplasma.
23. Emerging bacterial pathogens.
1. The nature of viruses
2. Classification of viruses
3. Morphology :virus structure
4. Virus replication
5. The genetics of viruses
6. The pathogenicity of viruses
7. Epidemiology of viral infections
8. Vaccines and antiviral drugs
10. Pox viruses
11. Herpes viruses
12. Vesicular viruses
16. Marburg and Ebola viruses
17. Rubella virus
18. Orbi viruses
19. Influenza virus
20. Respiratory disease: Rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, corona viruses
22. Enteroviruses : Polio, Echo, Coxsackie viruses
23. Other enteric viruses
24. Hepatitis viruses
25. Rabies virus
26. Slow viruses
27. Human immunodeficiency viruses
28. Oncogenic viruses
29. Teratogenic viruses
30. Viruses of gastroenteritis
31. Prion diseases
32. Emerging viral infections - SARS, Avian influenza
1.Protozoan parasites of medical importance : Entamoeba, Giardia,
Trichomonas, Leishmania, Trypanosoma, Plasmodium, Toxoplasma,
Sarcocystis, Cryptosporidium, Balantidium,Isospora,
2. Helminthology : All those medically important helminths belonging to
Cestoda, Trematoda and Nematoda.
Cestodes : Diphyllobothrium, Taenia, Echinococcus, Hymenolepis, Dypyllidium,
Trematodes : Schistosomes, Fasciola, Gastrodiscoides, Paragonimus,
Clonorchis, Opisthorchis etc.
Nematodes : Trichuris, Trichinella, Strongyloides, Ancylostoma, Nicator,
Ascaris, Toxocara, Enterobius, Filarial worms, Dracunculus, etc.
3. Ectoparasites : Common arthropods and other vectors viz.,Mosquito, Sandfly,
Ticks, Mite, Cyclops.
1. The morphology and reproduction of fungi and antimycotic agents
2. Classification of fungi
3. Contaminant and opportunistic fungi
4. Fungi causing superficial mycoses
5. Fungi causing subcutaneous mycoses
6. Fungi causing systemic infections
7. Antifungal agents
APPLIED CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
1. Epidemiology of infectious diseases
2. Hospital acquired infections
3. Infections of various organs and systems of the human body
4. Molecular genetics as applicable to Microbiology
5. Automation in Microbiology
6. Rapid diagnostic techniques for microbial diseases.
7. Vaccinology : principle, methods of preparation, administration of vaccines
8. Outbreak investigations & disaster management
9. Biological warfare
1. Care and operation of Microscopes viz. Light, Dark ground, Phase contrast,
Inverted, Fluorescent microscopes.
2. Preparation of stains viz. Gram's, Albert's, Ziehl- Neelson and other special
stains - performing of staining and interpretation of stained smears.
3. Washing and sterilization of glassware including plugging and packing.
4. Operation of incubator, autoclave, hot air oven, inspissator, distillation
plant, filters like Seitz and membrane and sterility tests.
5. Care and maintainance of common laboratory equipments like water bath,
centrifuge, refrigerators, incubators etc.
6. Preparation and pouring of liquid and solid media - Nutrient agar, Blood
agar, MacConkey agar, sugars, TSI agar, Robertson's cooked meat,
Lowenstiein- Jensen's, selective media.
7. Preparation of reagents - oxidase, Kovac, etc.
8. Tests for beta-lactamases including ESBLs.
9. Collection of specimens for Microbiological investigations such as blood,
urine, throat swab, rectal swab, stool, pus, OT specimens.
10. Preparation, examination and interpretation of direct smears from clinical
specimens,viz. Sputum for AFB - ZN & auramine O, slit smears for
M..leprae,-ZN stain, conjunctival smear for Chlamydiae - Giemsa/Iodine.
11. Techniques of anaerobiosis - Gaspack system,anaerobic jars-evacuation &
filling with H2, CO2
12. Identification of bacteria of medical importance upto species level (except
anaerobes - upto generic level)
13. Quantitative analysis of urine by pour plate method and semiquantitative
analysis by standard loop test for significant bacteriuria.
14. Plating of clinical specimens on media for isolation, purification
identification and quantitation.
15. Tests for motility: hanging drop, Craige's tube, dark ground microscopy for
Spirochaetes - Treponema & Leptospira.
16. In-vitro toxigenicity tests - Elek test, Nagler's reaction
17. Special tests - Bile solubility, chick cell agglutination, sheep cell haemolysis,
niacin and catalase tests for mycobacterium, satellitism, CAMP test,
catalase test and slide agglutination tests, and other as applicable t
identification of bacteria upto species level
18. Preparation of antibiotic discs; performance of antimicrobial susceptibility
testing by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method; estimation of Minimum
inhibitory /Bactericidal concentrations by tube/plate dilution methods.
Tests for drug susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
19. Skin tests like Mantoux, Lepromin etc.
20. Testing of disinfectants- Phenol coefficient and ‘in use' tests.
21. Quality control of media reagents etc. and validation of sterilization
22. Aseptic practices in laboratory and safety precautions.
23. Disposal of contaminated material like cultures.
24. Bacteriology of food, water, milk, air
25. Maintenance of stock cultures.
Desirable to acquire:
1. Care and breeding of laboratory animals viz. Mice, rats, guinea pigs and
2. Techniques of withdrawal of blood from laboratory animals includingsheep.
3. Inoculation of infective material in animals by different routes.
4. Animal pathogenicity /toxigenicity tests for C.diphtheriae, Cl.tetani, S.
pneumoniae, S.typhimurium, K. pnumoniae etc.
5. P erformance of autopsy on animals.
6. Isolation of plasmids and Conjugation experiments for transfer of drug
7. Serum antibiotic assays eg. Gentamicin
8. Phage typing for staphylococci, S.typhi etc.
9. Bacteriocine typing eg. Pyocine, Proteocin etc.
10. Enterotoxigenicity tests like rabbit ileal loop, intragastric inoculation of
mouse, Sereny's test.
11. Mouse foot pad test for M.leprae
1. Collection of blood by venepuncture, seperation of serum and preservation
of serum for short and long periods.
2. Preparation of antigens from bacteria or tissues for widal, Weil-Felix, VDRL,
etc. and their standardisation.
3. Preparation of adjuvants like Freund's adjuvant.
4. Raising of antisera in laboratory animals.
5. Performance of serological tests viz. Widal, Brucella tube agglutination,
indirect haemagglutination, VDRL, Paul-Bunnel, Rose-Waaler, IFA.
6. Immunodiffusion in gels, counter immunoelectrophoresis- visualization and
interpretation of bands.
7. Performance and interpretation of Enzyme linked immunosorbant assay.
8. Latex and staphylococcal co-agglutination tests.
Desirable to acquire:
1. Leucocyte migration inhibition test.
2. T-cell rosetting.
3. Flow Cytometry
4. Radial immunodiffusion.
6. Neutrophil phagocytosis.