PH.D in Botany

Bharathiar University

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Important information

  • PhD
  • Coimbatore
Description

Important information
Venues

Where and when

Starts Location
On request
Coimbatore
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046., Tamil Nadu, India
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Course programme

PAPER I - RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
UNIT 1:
Principals and methodology of colorimetry, spectrophotometry, pH meter, dialysis and
lyophilisation, centrifugation, basic principles underlying different types of centrifuges.
UNIT II:
Chromatography - partition, thin layer adsorbtion, sephadex, ion exchange, gas liquid
chromatography, HPLC.
Electrophoresis - Agarose electrophoresis, polyacrylamide disc and slab gel with and without
SDS, urea, 2-mercaptoethanol and ampholytes and electrofocusing.
UNIT III:
Nucleic acids - isolation and purification. Southern, Western and Northern hybridization
techniques, Colony hybridization. Polymerase Chain Reaction, Genome mapping; molecular
markers - RFLP, RAPD, AFLP.
UNIT IV:
Culture techniques - microbe and plant tissue (cell and organs) - media preparation (PDA,
Nutrient Agar, CHU-10), Bolds basal medium, MS medium, Gamborg medium). Sterilization
techniques, Cytological techniques - pretreatment, fixatives and stains.
UNIT V:
Field and herbarium methods: materials for revision, monographs, flora and vegetation studies.
Botanical nomenclature, phytogeography of India.
Phytochemistry - Extraction, isolation, characterization and identification of terpens, alkaloids
and flavanoids.
PAPER II - TRENDS IN PLANT SCIENCE
UNIT 1:
Fundamentals of microbial degradation - organisms and materials involved. Factors affecting
microbial growth. Biochemistry of degradation. Agro-waste utilization with special reference to
litter.
UNIT II:
The concept of energy richness in plants - lignocellulose, sugars and terpenoids. Basic
knowledge of plats yielding fuel, wood, waxes, alcohol and hydrocarbons.
UNIT III:
Germplasm resources - definition, scope, conservation, work done in India. Utilization of
germplasm of (1) Paddy (2) Chickpea (3) Pigeonpea and (4) Sugarcane.
UNIT IV:
Ethnobotany in relation to human welfare : Elementary knowledge of crude drugs - Preparation
and preservation; Classification of active principles and their distribution in plant parts.
UNIT V:
Greenhouse effect; ozone depletion; plant indicators of pollution, role of vegetation in pollution
control.
PAPER III: PLANT CYTOGENETICS
UNIT I:
Architecture of the chromosome - prokaryotic and eukaryotic chromosomes - plasmids,
episomes , transposomes; Genomes of mitochondria and plastids - Euchromatin and
heterochromatin - Chromatin and nucleosome - B-chromosomes and special types of
chromosomes
UNIT II:
Structural changes in chromosomes - Duplications, Deficiencies, Inversions and Translocations
- classification, identification, meiotic pairing, breeding behaviour and role in evolution of
structural changes.
UNIT III:
Numerical changes in chromosomes : Haploidy - classification, methods of production,
identification and utility. Polyploidy - Auto and Allopolyploidy, their classification, meiotic
pairing, production, utility and role in evolution; Aneuploidy - trisomy, tetrasomy, monosomy,
and nullisomy.
UNIT IV:
Chromosome banding techniques - Different types and their application. In-situ hybridization.
Induced mutation in plants and their application.
UNIT V:
Alien gene transfer through chromosome manipulation - whole genome, individual
chromosome, individual gene. Molecular markers and their utility - PCR, RAPD, RFLP, AFLP,VNTR, SSR.
PAPER III. MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND PLANT BIOTECHNOLOGY
UNIT I: Gene Concept
DNA as genetic material. DNA structure, organization and replication. Organization of Pro and
Eukaryotic genome . Gene expression - Genes in development - gene regulation. Control of
gene expression. Terminator gene technology
UNIT II: Plant Tissue Culture
Types of cultures - Callus, organ, embryo, cell and protoplast. Micropropagation, Germplasm
storage and conservation in-vitro, somaclonal variation, haploid production with reference to
Rice, wheat, Sugarcane, and Cotton
UNIT III: Gene Transfer Techniques
Characterization of specific genes, Gene isolation methods - Direct gene transfer methods -
electroporation - microinjection - biolistics - PEG mediated - liposome mediated and plastid
transformation. Indirect gene transfer methods - Agrobacterium mediated gene transfer
UNIT IV: Transgenic in Crop Improvement
Production of transgenic for resistance to abiotic (low and high temperature, salt, herbicide) and
biotic (pests and diseases). Quality improvement - protein enrichment, improvement in shelf life,
male sterility, antisense messenger RNA, Bioreactors.
UNIT V : Markers and IPR
Marker assisted selection for crop improvement - PCR, RAPD, RFLP, AFLP, SSR, EST
Genome mapping. Intellectual property Rights - Forms of protection - copy right, trade mark,patent. Plant Breeders rights
PAPER III. ENVIRONMENT AND CONSERVATION BIOLOGY
UNIT I:
Scope of Environmental Biology, Ecosystem, Energy Flow. Pollution - Air, Water and Soil - Its
impact on plant, control measures.
UNIT II:
Global warming, Ozone depletion and Green house effect. Energy - sources - Fossil fuels,
natural gas, wind energy, Bio energy and energy conservation.
UNIT III:
Historical account of conservation of fauna and flora in India: Phytogeographical regions.
Biodiversity -Types, values, threats and "Hotspots".
UNIT IV:
Plant genetic resources: Conservation strategies for plant genetic resources (in situ and ex situ).
IUCN classification - Red data book. Role of NBPGR, WWF, UNDP, IPGRI, FAO in
conservation programmes in India.
UNIT V:
Human dimension in ecosystem management - Predominant ethnic communities of India - with
special reference to Tamil Nadu and their role in conservation of plants. Tribal development
programmes in Indian society and environment. Tribal bill.
PAPER - III - BIOPROSPECTING OF MEDICINAL AND AROMATIC PLANTS
UNIT-I
Plant genetic resources and their conservation: Medicinal and Aromatic Plants - Scope and
importance. Approaches and strategies for ex-situ conservation: botanical garden, arboreta,
herbal garden and field gene bank.
UNIT-II
General principles of chromatography. Principle, instrumentation and application of HPLC, GC,
GC-MS,. Extraction methods: distillation, steam and solvent.
UNIT-III
Classification, chemical nature and tests for carbohydrates, proteins, alkaloids and terpenoids.
Antifungal and antiviral drugs. Stress physiology: Drought and freezing resistance, Heat shock
and salinity stress.
UNIT- IV
Pharmacology: Routes of drug administration, absorption and distribution. Pharmacological
activity of morphine, atropine, ephedrine and camphor. Chemotaxonomy of higher and lower
plants and distribution of certain chemotaxonomical group of constituents in plant kingdom like
alkaloids, glycosides and terpenoids.
UNIT-V
Post harvest technology in medicinal crops: scope and importance. Adulteration with reference
to plant drugs, type of adulterants and method of adulteration. Importance of herbal marketing.
Biodiversity act and Intellectual Property Right in the area of medicinal Plants.
PAPER III - MICROBIOLOGY AND PLANT PATHOLOGY
Mycology
UNIT I
Fungal cell and its structure; Reproduction, Factors affecting asexual spore formation,
maturation, spore dispersal mechanisms, dormancy and germination.
Fungal nutrition, use of fungi in immobilized cell technology (outline only).
UNIT II
Ectomycorrhiza - Structure and development, Growth and carbon economy, Nitrogen and
phosphorous nutrition, Ectendomycorrhizas.
Endomycorrhiza - Arbuscular mycorrhiza: fungi involved, Root colonization and anatomy,
Genetic, Cellular and molecular interactions, Growth and carbon economy of AM plants,
Mineral nutrition, heavy metal accumulation and water relations of AM plants.
Role of mycorrhizas in ecosystems - AM in agriculture and horticulture - Mycorrhizas in
managed environment: forest production, interactions with other microorganisms and pollutants.
Plant pathology:
UNIT III
Effects of pathogens on host physiology, Genetic basis of host - Pathogen interaction -
pathogenesis - Toxins -Definition, Classification, Chemistry, production and mode of action of
bacterial toxins with special reference to wildfire toxin - Chemistry production and synthesis of
fungal toxins with reference to Helminthosporium toxin - Host defense mechanisms -
Epidemiology, assessment and forecasting of plant diseases.
Applied microbiology
UNIT IV
Microbes and soil fertility: Nitrogen fixing organisms (Symbiotic, nonsymbiotic and
associative)- phosphate solubilizers (bacteria and fungi) - Inoculum production
Microbes in plant protection: Biological control of plant pathogens - Mechanism - bioinsecticides,
bio-herbicides, biofungicides.
UNIT V
Application of microbes in sewage and wastewater treatment, degradation of xenobiotics,
mineral recovery, removal of heavy metals from aqueous effluents, composting, Microbial
biosensors.
Microorganisms as source of food - single cell protein, Cultivation of mushrooms
PAPER III - ALGOLOGY
UNIT I : TAXONOMY
Modern criteria (biochemical, cytological, physiological, ultra structural) in
taxonomy and phylogeny of algae current taxonomic treatment of algal phyla.
Fossil algae.
UNIT II : CULTURE
Isolation and culture and pure culturing of algae. Synchronous cultures, mass
cultures, variations of algae in culture.
UNIT III : PHYSIOLOGY
Nutrition, photosynthesis and respiration, N2-fixation in blue greens.
Cyaenophyages. Morphogenesis in algae.
UNIT IV : ECOLOGY
Occurance and seasonal distribution of fresh water and marine algae. Fresh water
and marine phytoplankton and phytobenthos. Thermophilic algae; soil algae;
algae in relation to pollution.
UNIT V : GENETICS AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
Mutation, recombination, molecular biology and biotechnology of cyanobacteria
with special reference to Spirulina. Agricultural and industrial uses of algae
PAPER III: PHYSIOLOGICAL EMBRYOLOGY AND TISSUE CULTURE
UNIT I : Anther development: Physiological and cytological studies, androgenesis and
haploids. Ovary, ovule and nucellus culture.
UNIT II : Biochemical embryogenesis. Embryo culture techniques and application.
Somatic embryogeny physiology of the development of somatic embryos;
strategies for large scale manipulations of somatic embryos. Synthetic seeds -
production and application.
UNIT III : Endosperm culture and application, somaclonal and gametoclonal variation.
Impact on plant biology and breeding strategies. Storage of germplasm and
germplasm exchange. Production of secondary metabolities in vitro.
UNIT IV : Protoplast isolation, culture, fusion and establishment of culture. Uptake of
organelles and organisms. Somatic hybridization by protoplast fusion.
Implication for agriculture. Genetic engineering through (vector/vectorless)
protoplast culture.
UNIT V : Trends and prospects of tissue culture technology; Improvement of food and
energy crops (a general trends); Application in Forestry; Disease elimination -
Meristem culture. Tissue culture in India - Potentials and progress
PAPER III - SEED TECHNOLOGY
UNIT I : Germplasm resources of food grains - pulses, cereals and oil seeds - collection
and ex situ and in situ conservation - Role of IPGRI (International Plant
Genetic Research Institute) (Rome), NBPGR (New Delhi) and ICRISAT
(Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh) in germplasm collection and conservation of
most common cereal and pulse crops.
UNIT II : Biochemical composition of legume and cereal seeds/grains. Seed proteins -
albumins, globulins, glutelins and prolamines their structure, function and
composition. Seed carbohydrates - starches and soluble carbohydrates
including flatulence factors, structure and composition. Seed oils and lipids -
structure and composition.
UNIT III : Physiology of seed/grain development-growth patterns - sigmoid and double
sigmoid growth curves - phases of growth - role of pericarp (hull), seed coats
and flag leaf in seed/grain development. Biosynthesis of proteins,
carbohydrates, lipids during seed grain development.
UNIT IV : Physiology of seed germination - primary/early biochemical events of
germination. Appearance and role of proteases, amylases and lipases in
hydrolyzing stored food materials in storage organs. Mobilization of
hydrolysed products to the growing embryonal axis/seeding.
UNIT V : Antinutritional factors - Heat labile and heat stable antinutritional factors in
food grains - their structure and role in human nutrition - Different processing
methods to eliminate (post harvest technology) decrease antinutritional factors.
PAPER III - MEDICO - BOTANY
UNIT I : Ethonobotany in human welfare - food, health-care conservation, bio-chemistry.
Regional studies, recent trends and socio-economic aspects.
UNIT II : Pharmacognosy - Introduction, the oldest modern science classification of
vegetable drugs, identification of drugs (taxonomical, anatomical, fluorescence,
chemicals, organoleptic, microscopic only).
UNIT III : Sources of vegetable drugs - Biological, geographical and culturals. Production
of vegetable drugs - role of growth regulators. Deterioration of drugs and their
control measures.
UNIT IV : Chemistry of vegetable drugs - acid, alcohol, ester, carbohydrate, phenolic
compounds, volatile oils, resin, saponin and carbioactivies.
UNIT V : Importance and significance of flavonoids, alkaloids tumor inhibitors, vitamins,
hormones, pesticides and antibiotics of plant origin
PAPER III - FLORISTICS, TAXONOMY & ETHNOBOTANY
UNIT I : History of classification (pre and post - Darwinian). Aims of taxonomy. Units of
classification, taxonomic hierarchy, concepts of families, genera, species and
infraspecific taxa. Importance of characters, including anatomical, cytological,
embryological and palynological, in taxonomy.
UNIT II : Herbarium and its functions. Major herbaria in India. Floras, revisions and
monographs. Botanical nomenclature. History of floristic studies in peninsular
India.
UNIT III : Ethnobotany (particularly) of south Indian tribals. Ethnobotanical aspects of
conservation and management of plant resources. Importance of wild relatives of
cultivated plants.
UNIT IV : Floristic regions of India. Flora of peninsular India and their affinities and
endemism with particular reference to angiosperms. Vegetation/forest types in
peninsular India.
UNIT V : Floristic diversity (flowering plants) in peninsular India. Services rendered and
goods supplied by tropical forests. Causal factors of degradation and depletion of
tropical forests. Rare and endangered species of flowering plants and their in situ
(including National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries and biosphere reserves in
peninsular India) and ex situ conservation

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