BASIC PSYCHOLOGY I
What is psychology? Why study psychology? Psychology as a science: methods of psychology-experimental method, systematic observation, case study method, survey method; Early schools of psychology, modern perspectives.
Biology of Behaviour
Species – typical behaviour patterns, neurons & synapses, nervous system - peripheral & central nervous system; brain & sleep, importance of forebrain, association cortex, behaviour & experience, left & right hemisphere functions.
Sensation – Perception – Consciousness & control – Learning – Memory & Forgetting – Thinking & Language.
Intelligence in Historical Perspective – Nature & Theories of Intelligence.
Motivation & Emotion
Motives as interferences, explanation & predictor, some theories of motivation, biological motivation, social motives – motives to know & to be effective, frustration & conflicts of motives; defense mechanism.
Expression & perception of emotion; the physiology of emotion & stress, some theories of emotion.
1. Morgan C.T. & King R.A. (1994) Introduction to Psychology, Tata McGraw Hill Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
2. Robert A Baron (2002), Psychology, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, India.
3. Michael W. Passer & Ronald E. Smith (2007), Psychology: The Science of Mind & Behaviour, 3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill Edition, New Delhi, India.
4. Robert S. Feldman (2004) Understanding Psychology 6th Edition, Tata McGraw - Hill.
Social Psychology: A Working Definition – Research Methods in Social Psychology – Understanding Research Methods – Systematic Observation: Describing the world around us – Correlation: The search for relationship – The Experimental Method: knowledge through systematic intervention – The Role of Theory in Social Psychology.
Social Perception – Social Cognition – Attitudes – Aspects of Social Identity – Prejudice & discrimination.
Interpersonal Attraction – close relationships – Social Influence – Prosocial Behaviour – Aggression.
Nature & Function: Group formation – Function: Roles-Status – Norms – Cohesiveness. Impact of groups on Individual performance: Social facilitation – Social loafing.
Group Conflict – Decision Making by Groups – Leadership.
Social Psychology in Action
Applying Social Psychology to the Interpersonal aspects of Legal System – Applying Social Psychology to Health – related Behaviour – Applying Social Psychology to the World of Work.
1. Baron, R.A. & Byrne, D.: Social Psychology (9th edition), Delhi: Pearson education, 2000.
2. Myers, D.G.: Social Psychology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill, 2005.
Biological Foundation of Behaviour
Meaning of Biological Psychological – Viewpoints to explore Biology of Behaviour – Approaches that relate brain & behaviour – Levels of Analysis.
Composition of the Nervous System – Divisions of the Nervous System – Functional descriptions of Brain Structures – Blood supply to the Brain – Newer Imaging Techniques – Cell Specialization.
Electrical signals – Transmission Processes – Circuits – Gross Electrical Activity. Chemical Bases of Behaviour: Neurotransmitters. Hormones & the Brain: Ways by which hormones act – Endocrine glands & their hormones – Impact of hormones on behaviour.
Evolution & Development of Nervous System
Evolution of Brian & Behaviour: Need to study other species.
Lifespan Development of the Brian & Behaviour: Processes of Growth & Development of the Brian-Stages of the Development of the Nervous System – Glial Cells-Interaction of intrinsic & extrinsic factors-influence of Experience on Brian Development-Maldevelopment of Brian – Changes in Brian due to Aging-Time scales for describing Brian Development.
Regulation & Behaviour
Sexual Behaviour: Stages of Reproductive Behaviour – Regulation of Reproductive Behaviour – Role of Pheromones – Diversity of Human Sexual Behaviour. The Two Sexes: Beneficial Mutations of sexual reproduction – Reproductive Strategies of Males Females – Basic types of Mating Systems – Sexual Selection.
Sexual differentiation: Determination of Sex – Defining Gender – Role of Genodal Hormones – Social Influences on Sexual Differentiation.
Biological Rhythms: Daily Rhythms in Animals – Circadian Clock – circannual Rhythms in Animals. Sleeping & Waking: Stages of Sleep – Evolution of Sleep – Sleep patterns across Lifespan – Underlying Structure of Sleep – Biological functions of sleep – Normal systems Underlying Sleep.
Language & Cognition: Development of Evolution of Speech & Language – Causes of Language Disorders – Organization of Language in the Brian – Functional Neuroimaging – functions of Left & the Right Brian – frontal Lobes & the Higher order cognitive & emotional Functions – Deficits in Spatial Perception & Brian Injury – Recovery of Brian Functions.
1. Rosenzweig, M.A., Marc Breedlove, S. Watson, N.V. Biological Psychology, M.A.: Sinauer Associates, Inc, 2005.
2. Wagner, H. & Silber K., Physiological Psychology, NY: BIOS Scientific Publishers, 2004.
What is developmental psychology: meaning of developmental changes – significant facts about development – the life span – difficulties in studying life span – development – the life span – developmental tasks during the life span – happiness & unhappiness during life span.
INFANCY & BABYHOOD
The beginning of life & infancy: the beginning – conception – periods & prenatal development – hazards during prenatal period understanding birth complications – characteristics of infancy – developmental tasks – physical developmental – physiological functions – muscle control – speech development play – development of understanding – mental development – personality development – Piaget’s Cognitive developmental stages – hazards & happiness.
Babyhood: Characteristics – developmental tasks – physical development – physiological functions – muscle control – speech development – interest in play – development if understanding – mental development – personality development – hazards & happiness.
EARLY & LATE CHILDHOOD
Early childhood: Characteristics – developmental tasks – physical development – skills – speech development – emotional expressions – socialization – play – moral development – family relationships – personality development – hazards & happiness.
Late childhood: Characteristics – development tasks – physical growth – skills – speech development – emotional expressions - social behaviour – play interests – moral attitudes & interests – personality changes – hazards & happiness.
PUBERTY & ADOLESCENCE
Characteristics of puberty – Criteria – Causes – Age – Growth spurt – Body changes – Effects of puberty changes – Hazards & Happiness.
Characteristics of adolescence – Development tasks – Physical change – Storm & Stress – Social change – Interest – Morality – Sex Interest & Behaviour – Family relationships – Personality change – Hazards & Happiness.
FROM ADULTHOOD TO OLD AGE
Characteristics of early adulthood – Development tasks – changes in interest – social interest – Sex role adjustment – Vocational adjustments – Marital Adjustments – Adjustment to parenthood – Hazards of vocational & Marital adjustments – Success of Adjustment to adulthood.
Characteristics of Middle Age – Developments tasks – Adjustment to physical change & mental changes – Social Adjustment – Vocational Adjustment – to changed family patterns – Being single – loss of a spouse – Adjustment – to changed family patterns – Being single – loss of a spouse – Adjustment to approaching old.
Characteristics of old age – Development tasks – Adjustment to physical changes – Change in motor & mental abilities. Changes in interests – Vocational Adjustment – Retirement – Changes in family life – loss of a spouse – Living arrangement for elderly hazards.
1. Hurlock, E.B. (1997): Developmental Psychology (IV Edn.), New Delhi, Tata McGraw Hill.
2. Santrock, J.W.: Adolescence, New Delhi, McGraw Hill, 2003.
3. Thompson, George G. (1981): Child Psychology (2nd Edn.) Delhi, Surjeet Publications.
4. Berk, L.E. (2005): Child Development, (2nd Edn.), New Delhi, Pearson Education.
5. Shaffer, R.H., Child Psychology, M.A. Blackwell Publishing, 2004.
Meaning & Nature of Abnormal Behaviour – History of Psychopathology.
2. Classification, Diagnosis & Assessment:
Brief History of Classification: Early Efforts – Development of the WHO & DSM Systems. The Diagnostic System of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR). Psychological Assessment: Clinical Interviews – Psychological Tests – Behavioural & Cognitive Assessment. Biological Assessment: Neurochemical Assessment – Neuropsychological Assessment – Psychophysiological Assessment.
Classification, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Biological theories of ADHD – Psychological Theories of ADHD. Conduct Disorders: etiological & Risk Factors. Learning Disabilities: Learning Disorders – Communication Disorders – Motor Skills Disorder – Etiology. Mental Retardation: Traditional Criteria – Classification – The Approach of the American Association of Mental Retardation – Etiology. Autistic Disorder: Characteristics – Etiology.
Phobias: Specific Phobias – Social Phobias – Etiology of Phobias.
Etiology. Panic Disorder – Generalized Anxiety Disorder – Obsessive Compulsive Disorder – Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Somatoform & Dissociative Disorder Somatoform Disorders: Pain Disorder – Bodydysmorphic Disorder – Hypochondriasis – Conversion Disorder – Somatization Disorder – Etiology of Somatoform Disorders.
Clinical description: Anorexia Nervosa – Bulimia Nervosa – Binge Eating Disorder, etiology: Biological Factors – Sociocultural Influences – Psychodynamic Views – Personality & eating Disorders – Characteristics of families – Child Abuse & Eating Disorders – Cognitive Behavioural Views.
General Characteristics of Mood Disorders: Depression – Signs & Symptoms – Mania – Signs & Symptoms – Formal Diagnostic Listings of Mood Disorders – Heterogeneity within the Categories – Chronic Mood Disorders – Facts about Suicide – Prediction of Suicide from Psychological Tests – Preventing Suicide – Clinical & Ethical Issues in Dealing with suicide.
Clinical symptoms: Positive Symptoms – Negative Symptoms – Disorganized Symptoms – Other Symptoms. History of the Concept of Schizophrenia: early Descriptions – The broadened U S concept - The DSM IV-TR Diagnosis – Categories of Schizophrenia in DSM-IV-TR. Etiology: The Genetic Data – Biochemical factors – The Brian & Schizophrenia – Psychological Stress & Schizophrenia – Developmental studies of Schizophrenia.
Classifying Personality Disorders: Clusters, Categories & Problems. Odd/Eccentric Cluster: Paranoid Personality Disorder – Schizoid Personality Disorder – Schizotypal Personality Disorder – mDramatic/Erratic Cluster: Borderline Personality Disorder – Histrionic Personality Disorder – Narcissistic Personality Disorder – Antisocial Personality Disorder & Psychopathy. Anxious/Fearful Cluster: Avoidant Personality Disorder – Dependant Personality Disorder – Obsessive – Compulsive Personality Disorder.
Sexual & Gender Identity Disorder.
Gender Identity Disorder: Characteristics & causes.
Substance Abuse & Disorder
Substance Abuse – Substance dependence – Etiological Factors in the Development of Substance Dependence: Sociocultural Variables – Psychological Variables – Biological variables.
1. Davison, G.C., Neale, J.M. & Kring, A.M., Abnormal Psychology (9th Edn.), M.A. John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2004.
2. Alloy, L.B., Riskind, J.H. & Manos, M.J., Abnormal Psychology, New Delhi: Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company, 2005.
3. Cutting, J., Principles of Psychology, NY: OUP, 1997.
· Attention, perception & psychophysics.
· Learning, memory & thinking.
· Cognitive styles.
· Attitude & interests.
The students should be able to perform at least 10 of the experiments from the list specified in the course curriculum, making sure that at least two are selected from each area mentioned above & must submit a record work.
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
Definition, Nature & Scope of Personality – The aims of studying personality – The source of the term ‘personality’ – Approaches to studying personality: idiographic versus nomothetic – Effects of personality versus situational effects.
THEORIES & APPROACHES
Psychodynamic Theories of Personality: Sigmund Freud, Adler, Carl Jung, Horney, Sullivan, Fromm, Eriksson, - Defence Mechanisms.
Trait & Type Approaches to Personality: Cattell, Eysenck, Allport, Five factor model. Learning & Cognitive Approaches to Personality: Pavlov, Skinner, Hull, Dollard & Miller, Bandura, Mischel, Kelly, Rotter & Witkins. Need Theories: Mc Clelland, Atkinson, Murray. Humanistic Theories: Rogers, Maslow.
BIOLOGICAL BASIS OF PERSONALITY
Genetic Heretability of Personality Behavioural genetics – Behavioural genetics: basic ideas – How the influence of genes is assessed in behavioural genetics – Methods for assessing genetic heritability of personality.
BIOLOGICAL & PHYSIOLOGICAL MODELS OF PERSONALITY
Psychophysiology, neuropsychology & personality – Eysenck’s biological model of personality & arousal – Gray’s bas/bis theory – Cloninger’s biological model of personality – Empirical evidence for biological theories of personality – The central nervous & biological personality dimensions – The automatic nervous system & biological personality dimensions – Consideration of biological theories of personality.
Essential Components of Personality Theory. Criteria for evaluating personality theories. Interview technique. Self-Report Inventories: Single Trait Test, Multidimensional Tests. Projective Techniques – Measurement issues.
NEW FRONTIERS IN PERSONALITY RESEARCH
Basic assumptions in retrospect – Evaluation of personality theories – Future direction in personality psychology – Genetic influence: Person by situation interaction – Eclecticism & Integral Psychology: Current reflections & preoccupations in Personality research. Unresolved Problems in Personality. Pointers for future personality studies.
1. Schultz (1994). Theories of Personality 5th edition Brooks Cole Pub. Co.
2. Allen (1997). Personality Theories, Development, Growth & Diversity. 2nd edition. Allyn & Bacon.
3. Pervin (1970). Personality Theory & Research. 7th edition. John Wiley Publication.
4. Friedman (2003). Personality: Classic Theories & Modern Research. 2nd Edition: Pearson Education.
Rehabilitation: Meaning – nature – scope – Rehabilitation History – Genetic – pre-peri-post natal disorder. Disability & Handicap: Types.
REHABILITATION OF HEARING IMPAIRED
Sound & human – Hearing Loss – Types – Causes – Effects of hearing Loss – Identification & Assessment – Treatment & Rehabilitation: Medical & surgical-Auditory Rehabilitation Treatment – Educational Approaches.
REHABILITATION OF VISUAL IMPAIRED
The Visual system – Visual defect – types – causes – identification & prevalence – characteristics. Rehabilitation: Instructional Methods & Material’s Educational approaches – Special Adaptation.
REHABILITATION OF PHYSICALLY DISABLED
Introduction – Terminology related to Physical Functioning – Cerebral Palsy & other Disorders that Affect Ambulation: Meaning-Prevalence-Classification-Causes. Rehabilitation: Assistive & Adaptive Techniques.
REHABILITATION OF MENTALLY HANDICAPPED
Intelligence & Mental Handicap – Classification – characteristics – Incidence & Prevalence – Causes & Prevention – Assessment – Nature & Methods of Behaviourial Approaches in Teaching Mentally challenged & Managing Problem Behaviour.
REHABILITATION OF MENTALLY ABNORMAL OFFENDERS
Abnormally & Psychopathology –Mentally abnormal Offenders – Legal Process – Compulsory Hospital Admission – Voluntary Organization Services – Support & Rehabilitation.
REHABILITATION OF PROBLEM DRINKERS & DRUG ABUSERS
Alcohol &Problem Drinking – Conscious Altering Drugs & its effects – Detoxication service – Treatment Methods – Rehabilitation services.
REHABILITATION OF LEPROSY CURED, VICTIMS OF NATURAL CALAMITIES, VIOLENCE & AIDS
Leprosy: Nature – Types – characteristics – Rehabilitation Services for Leprosy Cured – Natural Calamities: Types & Effects – Introduction to social work & Rehabilitation services – AIDS: Nature – Types – Characteristics. Rehabilitation services for AIDS patients. Rehabilitation of victims of violence.
Introduction – Integral Staff Team – Occupational Therapy – Physical Therapy – Complementary & Alternative Medicine – Yoga.
ESSENTIAL OF REHABILITATION
Rights for the Disabled in India: Government Services – Non-Government Services – Law & Legal Provisions – PWD Act-Mental Health Act-RCI Act – National Trust Act.
ETHICAL ISSUES IN REHABILITATION
1. Bhattia M.S. (2004). Esentials of Psychiatry – CBCS Publication – New Delhi.
2. Shelly E. Taylor (2003). Health Psychology. Tata McGraw Hill. New Delhi.
3. Joel A. De Lisa, et al (1998): Rehabilitation Medicine: Principle & Practice. 3rd edition, Lippincot Raven Publication. Philadelphia.
4. Fraser N. Watts & Benner O.H. (1998): Theory & Practice of Psychiatric Rehabilitation, John Wiley & Sons. New York.
GUIDANCE & COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY
Definition, process & goals: Conceptual clarification of related terms – Guidance & Counseling,. Advice & Counseling, Education & Counseling, Direction Counseling: Instruction & Counseling.
Counseling approaches & & practices – Directive, non-directive, Existential, Eclectic approaches.
What do Counselors do?
The effective counselor skill – characteristics & attitudes: need for counseling. Where Counselors work?
Counseling Interview – Nature significant features, setting & types of counseling interview, Organization & Development & Guideline.
Tools & Techniques used in counseling & guidance – Testing & non-testing devices, tools & techniques for environmental information: Tools used in assisting individuals towards self discovery – Some Guidelines.
Ethics in Counseling
Codes of Professional Ethics, Ethical Principles & Theory, Ethics & Law, Common Ethical Violations by Mental Health Professional.
1. Patterson, L.E. & Welfel E.R. (2000): The Couselling Process, New Zealand, Wadsworth & Thomson Learning.
2. Gibson & Mitchell (2003), Introduction to Counseling & Guidance. 6th edition, Pearson Education.
3. Maggie Reid (2004), Counseling in different settings, The Reality of Practice. New York, MacMillan Publications.
4. Margaret H. (2002), 2nd edition, A Practical Approach To Counseling, Harlow, Pearson Education.
What is Behaviour Modification? Areas of Application. Learning, Biological & Cognitive Foundations – Historical Perspectives & Ethical Issues – Giving it all some perspective: A brief history: ethical Issues.
BASIC PRINCIPLES & PROCEDURES
Operant Conditioning Techniques: Basic paradigm – Schedules of Reinforcement – Token Economy – shaping – Chaining – Premack’s Principle. Relaxation Techniques – Jacobson’s Progressive Muscular Relaxation, Autogenic Training. Systematic Desensitization: Basic Principles – Construction of Hierarchy – Scene presentation – Theory of desensitization.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION
Meichenbaum’s Self-Instruction Training, Beck’s Model – Relational Emotive Therapy of Ellis. Biofeedback principles & clinical applications.
CLINICAL APPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIOUR THERAPY
In anxiety disorders, Psychoactive Substance Use Disorders – Sexual Disorders – Psychotic Disorders – Personality Disorders – Childhood Disorders.
BEHAVIOURIAL ASSESSMENT: INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS
Direct Behaviourial Assessment: What to Record & How.
Functional Assessment of the causes of Problem Behaviour.
1. Jones, Nelson (2005). Practical Counseling & Helping Skills. 5th Edition. London: Sage Publications.
2. Woolfe, R, Dryden W., Strawbridge S. (2003). Handbook of Counseling Psychology. 2nd Edition, London: Sage Publications.
3. Sundel & Sundel (1990). Behaviour change in the Human Services, 4th Edition. Thousan Oaks: Sage Publications.
4. Feldman et al. Theoretical & Experimental Bases of the Behaviour Therapy. Wiley, London.
Meaning & definition of statistics – origin, growth & characteristics – applications in psychology & limitations. Collection of primary data: direct personal interview – indirect oral interview – questionnaire method – information fro local correspondents. Collection of secondary data: published sources – unpublished sources.
DATA CLASSIFICATION & FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION
Classification & Tabulation
Objectives – types of classification – geographical – chronological – qualitative – quantitative – formation of continuous frequency distribution – uses of tabulation – parts of a table – types of tables – simple & complex tables – general purpose & special tables.
Diagrammatic & Graphic Representation
General rules for constructing diagrams & graphs – uses of diagrams & graphs. Bar diagram – pie diagram – pictogram – cartogram. Line graph – frequency curve – frequency polygon – histogram – Ogives or cumulative frequency curves – limitations of diagrams & graphs.
Averages: Concepts of averages – requisites of a good average – the mean, median & model – concept explanation – merits & demerits – combined mean – numerical computations (simple problems only).
Concept of dispersion – measures of dispersion – range – quartile deviation – standard deviation – mean deviation – combined standard of deviation – concept explanation numerical computations (simple problems only).
PROBABILITY & THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION
Concept of population – sample – census – the requisites of sample. Random sampling methods – non-random sampling methods – sampling errors – non-sampling errors.
Meaning of probability – addition & multiplication theorems on probability (without proof) – properties of binomial – Poisson & normal distributions – Skewness – moments kurtosis (theory only).
INFERENTIAL STATISTICS: CORRELATION & REGRESSION
Meaning of correlation – types of correlation – numerical computations of product – moment & Rank order correlation (simple problems only). Meaning of Regression – computations (simple problems only). Meaning of regression – regression coefficients – regression equations X on Y & Yon X with numerical computations (simple problems only).
TESTS FOR SIGNIFICANCE
Meaning of hypothesis – types of hypothesis – significance of mean – CR – small sample t–test – large sample t-test (critical ratio). Chi Square – one way analysis of variance (simple problems only) – meaning of standard error – errors in statistical decision – type I & type II errors.
1. Howell, D.C. (2002): Statistical Methods for Psychology, 5th edition. Australia, Duxbury Publishers.
2. Garrett, H.E. (1979): Statistics in Psychology & Education, 9th Indian Reprint, Bombay, Vakils, Feffer & Simons Pvt. Ltd.
3. Gupta, S.P. (2006): Statistical Methods, New Delhi: Sultan Chand & Sons.
4. Howell, D.C. (2002): Statistical Methods of Psychology. 5th edition. Australia, Duxbury Publishers.