PHYSICAL AND GEOMETRICAL OPTICS
Light: Nature of light, Newton’s Corpuscular theory, Huygens’s wave theory, Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, Einstein’s quantum theory, Dual Nature theory, Properties of light, Spectrum of light, Visible light and the eye, Fechner’s Law, Weber’s law, Measurement of light: Radiometry, Photometry.
Interference: Coherent sources, Interference phenomena in optics: Constructive interference, Destructive interference, Coherence: Spatial coherence, Temporal coherence, Applications of interference. Interference in thin films. Wedge shaped thin films, testing of planeness of surface Newton’s rings experiment, refractive index of liquid, Interferometer: Michelson interferometer.
Diffraction: Phenomenon of Rectilinear Propagation, Frenel’s diffraction, Fraunhofer diffraction, Applied aspects of diffraction, Single slit, qualitative and quantitative, Zone plate, Circular aperture.
liPolarization: Polarized and Unpolarized light, Polarization of transverse waves, light as transverse waves, Double refraction, Nicol prism - Nicol prism as an analyzer, Elliptically & Circulary polarized light. Optical activity- Frenal’s experiment, Biquartz Applications of polarized light.
Spectrum: Sources of spectrum: Bunsen, carbon, mercury, sodium, Emission and absorption spectra. Classification of emission spectra, Solar spectrum, Ultraviolet Spectrum, Infra-red spectrum, Electromagnetic spectrum.
Scattering: Applied aspects, Glare effect, Light reduction effect, Photo electric effect, Raman Effect, Laser.
Optical instruments: Spectrometer, Simple and compound microscope, Telescope, Resolving power of optical instruments, Resolving power of the eye, Magnifying power of simple and compound microscope, telescope.