Definition of Forensic Medicine, State Medicine, Legal Medicine and Medical Jurisprudence.
History of Forensic Medicine.
1. Criminal procedure code, Criminal cases, Civil cases, Definition of Inquest , Different types of
inquest procedures police inquest, magistrate’s inquest. Cognizable and non cognizable offences,
Different types of courts in India and their powers – Supreme court, High Court, Session Court,
Magistrate’s court. Court procedures: Summons,oath, affirmation,conduct money, types of
witnesses, types of examination in court. Examination in chief, Cross examination, Re- examination,
court questions, Evidence – Oral, Documentary, Medical evidence, Medical Certificate, Dying
dcelaration, Dying deposition, Conduct of a doctor in witness box and Examination of dead body at
the scene of crime.
2. Definition of death, Types of death-Somatic/Clinical/Cellular, Molecular and Brain death including
cortical death and Brainstem death, Natural and Unnatural death, Suspended animation Moment of
death, Modes of death – Coma, Syncope and Asphyxia, Presumption of death and Survivorship and
3. Description of signs of death. Post-mortem changes after death –cooling of dead body, postmortem
lividity, rigor mortis, cadaveric spasm, heat and cold stiffening, putrefaction, mummification, adipocere formation maceration and preservation of dead bodies.
4. Estimation of time since death on postmortem examination.
5. Examination of mutilated bodies or fragments, bundle of bones and exhumation.
6. Definition of postmortem examination, Different types of autopsies, aims and objectives of
postmortem examination, Legal requirements to conduct postmortem examination, Procedure to
conduct medicolegal postmortem examination, obscure autopsy, examination of clothing, preservation of viscera on postmortem examination for chemical analysis and other medicolegal purposes, postmortem artefacts.
7. Definition and classification of asphyxia, medico-legal interpretation of postmortem findings in
8. Definition and types of hanging and strangulation. Description of clinical findings, causes of death,
postmortem findings and medico-legal aspects of death due to hanging and strangulation. Examination and despatch of ligature material.
9. Definition, pathophysiology, clinical features, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects of
traumatic asphyxia, obstruction of nose & mouth, suffocation, sexual asphyxia.
10. Definition, types, pathophysiology, clinical features, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects of drowning, diatom test, Gettler test.
11. Clinical features, postmortem finding and medico legal aspects of injuries due to physical agentsheat (heat-hyper-pyrexia, heat stroke, sun stroke, Heat exhaustion (Prostration), heat cramps (miner‘s cramp)),cold (hypothermia, Frostbite, trench foot, Immersion foot), lightening,electrocution and radiations.
12. Clinical features, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects of death due to starvation and neglect.
Types of injuries, clinical features, pathophysiology, postmortem findings and medicolegal aspects
in cases of burns and scalds.
13. Definition of infanticide, foeticide and stillbirth. Signs of intrauterine death, Signs of live birth,
viability of foetus, age determination of foetus, demonstration of ossification centres, precipitate
labour, Haase’s rule, Hydrostatic test, maceration, Sudden infants death syndrome, Munchausen’s
syndrome by proxy.
2. CLINICAL FORENSIC MEDICINE
14. Establishment of identity of living persons – Definition of Corpus Delicti,Race, sex, religion,
complexion, stature, age determination using morphology, teeth-eruption,decay, bite marks, bonesossification
centres, medicolegal aspects of age. Foetal age determination, Identification of
criminals,unknown persons, dead bodies from the remains-hairs,fibers,teeth,anthropometry,
dactylography, foot prints,scars,tattoos,poroscopy and Superimposition.
15. Definition and classification of injuries, Various types of injuries. Abrasion, bruise, laceration, stab
wound, incised wound,chop wound, defence wound, self inflicted/fabricated wounds and their
16. Description of regional injuries to head (Scalp wounds, fracture skull, Intracranial haemorrhages,
Coup and contrecoup injuries), Neck,Chest,Abdomen,Limbs,Genital organs, Spinal cord and skeleton,
Vehicular injuries – Primary and Secondary impact, Secondary injuries, crush syndrome, railway
spine, reconstruction of scene of crime.
17. Definition of Injuries, Assult and Hurt. IPC pertaining to injuries. Accidental,Suicidal and Homicidal
Injuries. Types of Injuries – Simple ,Grievous and Dangerous. Different types of weapons, Dangerous
weapons and their examination. Antemortem and Potmortem Inuries, Medico-legal aspects of injuries.
Factors influencing, Infliction of Injuries and Healing, Different legal questions, examination and
certification of wounds, Wound as a cause of death: Primary and Secondary. Dowry death. Workman’s
18. Firearm injuries. Classification of fire-arms. Structure and components of various firearms,description
of ammunition propellant charge and mechanism of fire-arms, Various terminology in relation of
firearm – calibre, range,choking. Description of different types of cartridges and bullets.
19. Description of wound ballistic, blast injuries and their interpretation. Preservation and despath of
trace evidences in cases of firearm and blast injuries. Various test related to confirmation of use of
20. Definition and types of sexual offences, Definition of rape. Section 376 IPC, Examination of the
victim of an alleged case of rape, Examination of the accused of an alleged case of rape, preparation
of report and framing the opinion in rape cases, preservation and despatch of trace evidences in
cases of rape. Adultery, Unnatural Sexual offences Sodomy, Examination of accused and victim,
preparation of report and framing of opinion, preservation and despath of trace evidences in cases
of sodomy, incest, lesbianism, buccal coitus, bestiality, indecent assault. Sexual perversions.
Fetichism, transvestism, voyeurism, sadism necrophagia, masochism, exhibitionism, frotteurism,
21. Definitions of Impotence, Sterility, Frigidity, Sexual Dysfunction, Premature Ejaculation, Causes of
Impotence and sterility in male and female, Sterilization, Artificial Insemination, Surrogate mother.
22. Definition of Virginity and defloration, anatomy of male and female genitalia, Hymen and its types,
Medicolegal importance of hymen, Medicolegal importance of pregnancy, diagnosis of pregnancy,
Superfoetation, superfecundation, Definition of Legitimacy and its medicolegal importance, Diputed
paternity and maternity, Medicolegal aspects of delievery, Signs of delievery, Signs of recent and
remote delievery in living and dead.
23. Definition, Classification and complication of abortion, MTP act 1971, Methods of procuring criminal
abortion, Evidences of abortion-Living and Dead,Duties of doctor in cases of abortion.
24. Battered baby syndrome.
3. MEDICAL JURISPRUNDENCE
25. Laws inrelation to medical practice, duties of medical practitioner towards the patients and society. Rights priviliges of medical practitioner, penal erasure, infamous conduct, disciplinary committee, warning notice & euthanasia.
26. Code of medical ethics, unethical practices, dichotomy, consumer protection act , Prenatal diagnostic techniques act, Human organ transplantation act, ESI act, medicolegal issues in relation to family violence, Violation of human rights, NHRC and doctors, Doctors and media, ethics related to HIVpatients.
27. Malpractice- Civil, Criminal and ethical
28. Consent, kinds of consent, informed consent, negligence, vicarious liability, the doctrine of res Ipsa Loquitor, Contributory Negligence, Therapeutic Privilige, Rules of Consent, Malingering, Therapeutic Misadventure, corporate negligence, Professional negligence, Professional Secrecy, Human Experimentation, IPC related to medical Practice, Products liability, Medical Indemnity Insurance,Medical records.