Diploma in Life Sciences

Bharathiar University
In Coimbatore

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Important information

Typology Diploma
Location Coimbatore
  • Diploma
  • Coimbatore


Where and when

Starts Location
On request
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046., Tamil Nadu, India
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Starts On request
Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046., Tamil Nadu, India
See map

Course programme

Diploma Paper I - Basic Biological sciences
1. Cell Biology : Structure and function of cells and intracellular organelles (of both
prokaryotes and eukaryotes) : mechanism of cell division including (mitosis and
meiosis) and cell differentiation: Cell-cell interaction; Dosage compensation and
mechanism of sex determination.
2. Biochemistry: Structure of atoms, molecules and chemical bonds; Principles of
physical chemistry: Thermodynamics, Kinetics, dissociation and association
constants; Nucleic acid structure, genetic code, replication, transcription and
translation: Structure, function and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and
proteins; Enzymes and coenzyme; Respiration and photosynthesis.
3. Physiology: Response to stress: Active transport across membranes; Plant and
animal hormones: Nutrition (including vitamins); Reproduction in plants, microbes
and animals.
4. Genetics: Principles of Mendelian inheritance, chromosome structure and function;
Gene Structure and regulation of gene expression: Linkage and genetic mapping;
Extrachromosomal inheritance (episomes, mitochondria and chloraplasts);
Mutation: DNA damage and repair, chromosome aberration: Transposons; Sexlinked
inheritance and genetic disorders; Somatic cell genetics; Genome
organisation (in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes),
5. Evolutionary Biology: Origin of life (including aspects of prebiotic environment
and molecular evolution); Concepts of evolution; Theories of organic evolution;
Mechanisms of speciation; Hardyweinberg genetic equilibrium, genetic
polymorphism and selection; Origin and evolution of economically important
microbes, plants and animals.
6. Environmental Biology: Concept and dynamics or ecosystem, components, food
chain and energy flow, productivity and biogeochemical cycles; Types of
ecosystems, Population ecology and biological control; Community structure and
organisation; Environmental pollution; Sustainable development; Economic
importance of microbes, plants and animals.
Semester II
Diploma Paper II - Biophysics, Biochemistry & Biostatistics
1. Principles and application of light phase contrast, fluorescence, scanning and
transmission electron microscopy, Cytophotometry and flow cytometry, fixation
and staining, (36). Principles of biophysical methods used for analysis of
biopolymer structure, X-ray diffraction, fluorescence, UV, ORD/CD, Visible, NMR
and ESR spectroscopy; Hydrodynamic methods; Atomic absorption and plasma
emission spectroscopy (39).
2. Principles and applications of gel-filtration, ion-exchange and affinity
chromatography; Thin layer and gas chromatography; High pressure liquid (HPLC)
chromatography; Electrophoresis and electrofocussing; Ultracentrifugation
(velocity and buoyant density) (37).
3. Principles and techniques of nucleic acid hybridization and Cot curves; Sequencing
of Proteins and nucleic acids; Southern, Northern and South-Western blotting
techniques; Polymerase chain reaction; Methods for measuring nucleic acid and
protein interactions (38).
4. Principles and applications of tracer techniques in biology; Radiation dosimetry;
Radioactive isotopes and half life of isotopes; Effect of radiation on biological
system; Autoradiography; Cerenkov radiation; Liquid scintillation spectrometry
5. Primary structure of proteins and nucleic acids; Conformation of proteins and
polypeptides (secondary, Tertiary, quaternary and domain structure); Reverse turns
and Ramachandran plot; Structural polymorphism of DNA, RNA and three
dimensional structure of tRNA; Structure of carbohydrates, polysaccharides,
glycoproteins and peptido-glycans; Helixcoil transition; Energy terms in
biopolymer conformational calculation(25).
6. Biological energy transducers, Glycolysis and TCA cycle; oxidative
phosphorylations, Glycogen breakdown and synthesis; Gluconeogenesis;
Interconversion of hexoses and pentoses; Amino acid metabolism; Coordinated
control of metabolism; Biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines; Oxidation of
lipids; Biosynthesis of fatty acids; Triglycerides; Phospholipids; Sterols,Group
transfer and Coupled reactions (26).
7. Biochemistry and molecular biology of cancer; Oncogenes; Chemical
carcinogenesis; Genetic and metabolic disorders; Hormonal imbalances; Drug
metabolism and detoxification; (31).
8. Principles and practice of statistical methods in biological research, samples and
populations; Basic statistics-average, statistics of dispersion, coefficient of
variation; Standard error; Confidence limits; Probability distributions (binomial,
Poisson and normal; Tests of statistical significance; Simple correlation of
regression; Analysis of variance(41).
Semester III
Diploma Paper III - Cell and Molecular Biology, Immunology & Genetic Engineering
1. Structure of pro-and eukaryotic cells; Structure and organisation of membranes;
Glycoconjugates and proteins in membrane systems; Ion transport, Na+/K+ATPase;
Molecular basis of signal transduction in bacteria, plants and animals; Model
membranes; Liposomes; Intracellular compartments, proteinsorting, secretory and
endocytic pathways; Cytoskeleton; Nucleus; Mitochondria and chloroplasts; cell
cycle; Dosage compensation and sex determination and sex-linked inheritance (17).
2. The law of DNA constancy and C-value paradox; Numerical, and structural
changes in chromosomes; Molecular basis of spontaneous and induced mutations
and their role in evolution; polypoidy; Environmental mutagenesis and toxicity
testing; Population genetics (16)
3. Fine structure of gene, Eukaryotic genome organisation (Structure and organisation
of chromatin, polytene and lampbrush chromosomes,mitochondria and chloroplast
genome organization, coding and non-coding sequences, satellite DNA); DNA
damage and repair, DNA replication, amplification and Molecular recombination
4. Organization of transcriptional units; Mechanism of transcription of prokaryotes
and eukaryotes; RNA processing (capping, polyadenylation, splicing, introns and
exons); Ribonucleoproteins, structure of mRNA; Genetic code and protein
synthesis, Ribozyme (29).
5. Regulation of gene expression in pro and eukaryotes; Attenuation and
antitermination; Operon concept; DNA methylation; Heterochromatization;
Transposition; Regulatory sequences and transacting factors; Environmental
regulation of gene expression (30).
6. Antigen; Structure and functions of different clauses of immunoglobulins; Primary
and secondary immune response; Lymphocytes and accessory cells; Humoral and
cell mediated immunity; MHC; Mechanism of immune response and generation of
immunological diversity; Genetic control of immune response, Effector
mechanisms; Applications of immunological techniques, abzyme (23).
7. DNA ligases; Topoisomerases; Gyrases; Methylases; Nucleases; Restriction
endonucleases; Plasmids and bacteriophage base vectors for cDNA and genomic
8. Cell and tissue culture in plants and animals; Primary culture; Cell line; Cell clones;
Callus cultures; Somaclonal variation; Micropropagation; Somatic embryogenesis;
Haploidy; Protoplast fusion and somatic hybridization; Cybrides; Genetransfer
methods in plants and in animals; Transgenic biology; Allopheny; Artificial seeds;
Hybridoma technology, Gene targeting (34). Applications of genetic engineering in
agriculture, health and industry (33).
Semester IV
Diploma Paper IV - Ecology, Physiology &Parasitology
1. Interactions between environment and biota; Concept of habitat and ecological
niches; Limiting factor; Energy flow, food chain, food web and tropic levels;
Ecological pyramids and recycling, biotic community-concept, structure,
dominance, fluctuation and succession; (18).
2. Ecosystem dynamics and management; Stability and complexity of ecosystems;
Speciation and extinctions; environmental impact assessment; Principles of
conservation; Conservation strategies; sustainable development (19).
3. Water Relation; Mineral nutrition; Photosynthesis and photorespiration; Nitrogen,
Phosphorous and Sulphur metabolism; Stomatal physiology; Source and sink
relationship (6).
4. Physiology and biochemistry and seed dormancy and germination; Hormonal
regulation of growth and development; Photoregulation: Growth responses,
Physiology of flowering: Senescence (7).
5. Histology of mammalian organ systems, nutrition, digestion and absorption;
Circulation (open and closed circular, lymphatic systems, blood composition and
function); Muscular contraction and electric organs; Excretion and osmoregulation:
Nerve conduction and neurotransmitters; major sense organs and receptors;
Homeostatis (neural and hormonal); Bioluminiscence; Reproduction (11).
6. Gametogenesis in animals: Molecular events during fertilization, Cleavage patterns
and fate maps, Concepts of determination, competence and induction, totipotency
and nuclear transfer experiments: Cell differentiation and differential gene activity:
Morphogenetic determinants in egg cytoplasm; Role of maternal contributions in
early embryonic development; Genetic regulations of early embryonic development
in Drosophila; Homeotic genes(12).
7. Important human and veterinary parasites (protozoans and helminths); Life cycle
and biology of Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Ascaris, Wuchereria, Fasciola,
Schistosoma and Leishmania; Molecular, cellular and physiological basis of host -
parasite interactions(14).
8. Arthropods and vectors of human diseases (mosquitoes, lice, flies and ticks); Mode
of transmission of pathogens by vectors,; Chemical, biological and environmental
control of anthropoid vectors; Biology and control of chief insect pests of
agricultural importance; Plant host-insect interaction, insect pest management;
useful insects: Silkworm(15).
1. Principles of Taxonomy as applied to the systamics and Classification of Plant
Kingdom: Taxonomic structure; Biosystematics; Plant geography; Floristics.
2. Patterns of variation in morphology and life history in plants; Broad outlines of
classification AND evolutionary trends among algae, fungi,bryophytes and
pteridophytes; Principles of palaeobotany; Economic importance of algae, fungi and
3. Comparative anatomy and developmental morphology of gymnosperms and
angiosperms; Histochemical and ultrastructural aspects of development;
Differentiation and morphogenesis.
4. Androgensis and gynogenesis; Breeding system; Pollination biology; structural and
functional aspects of pollen and pistil; Male sterility; Self and inter-specific
incompatibility; Fertilization; Embryo and seed development.
5. Plants and civilization; Centres of origin and gene diversity; Botany, utilization,
cultivation and improvement of plants of food, drug, fibre and industrial values,
Unexploited plants of potential economic value; Plants as a source of renewable
energy; Genetic resources and their conservation.
6. Principles of plant breeding; Important conventional methods of breeding self and
cross-pollinated and vegetatively propagated crops; Non conventional methods;
Polyploidy: Genetic variability; Plant diseases and defensive mechanisms.
7. Principles of taxonomy as applied to the systematics and classification of the animal
kingdom; Classification and interrelationship amongst the major invertebrate phyla;
Minor invertebrate phyla, Functional anatomy of the nonchordates; Larval forms
and their evolutionary significance.
8. Classification and comparative anatomy of protochordates and chordates; Origin,
evolution and distribution of chordates groups: Adaptive radiation.
9. Physico-chemical properties of water; Kinds of aquatic habitats (fresh water and
marine); Distribution of and impact of environmental factors on the aquatic biota;
Productivity, mineral cycles and biodegradation in different aquatic ecosystems;
Fish and Fisheries of India with respect to the management of estuarine, coastal
water systems and man-made reservoirs; Biology and ecology of reservoirs(20).
10. Feeding, learning, social and sexual behavior of animals; Parental care; Circadian
rhythms; Mimicry; Migration of fishes and birds; Sociobiology; Physiological
adaptation at high altitude(13).
11. Structure, classification, genetics, reproduction and physiology of bacteria and
viruses (of bacteria, plants and animals); Mycoplasma protozoa and yeast (a general
Lysogeny and lytic cycle in bacteriophages; Bacterial transformation; Host cell
restriction; Transduction; Complementation;
Microbial fermentation; Antibiotics, organic acids and vitamins; Microbes in
decomposition and recycling processes; Symbiotic and asymbiotic N2-fixation;
Microbiology of water, air, soil and sewage: Microbes as pathological agents in
plants, animals and man; General design and applications of a biofermenter,
Energy metabolism (concept of free energy); Thermodynamic principles in biology;
Energy rich bonds; Weak interactions;

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